The Design and Fabrication of a Hydraulic Ram Pump (Hydram) is undertaken. The overall cost of fabrication of this hydram shows that the pump is relatively cheaper than the existing pumps. Hydram; Pump; Volume Flow Rate; Power; Efficiency; Impulse Valve;. University and their book “Hydraulic Hydraulic Ram Pumps – A guide to Hydraulic Ram Pump Systems design, implementation and important issues to. Home Built Hydraulic Ram Pumps. Two Useful Designs show you how to pump water for free. HydRam Pump. Complete detailed and illustrated instructions.
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can design and construct a simrle ram pump from commercial pipe fittings, VA- MA. The hydraulic ram pump described in this publication has been made and. [email protected] Abstract. The Design and Fabrication of a Hydraulic Ram Pump (Hydram) is undertaken. It is meant to lift water from a depth . Design of Hydraulic Ram Pump. Atharva Pathak. Aniruddha Deo. UG Student. UG Student. Department of Mechanical engineering. Department of Mechanical.
The pressure is then used to lift water to a point higher than where the water originally started with the least energy expenditure.
Figure 8: Head ratio vs. Figure 9: Efficiency vs. Waste Valve Beats per Minute The effect of waste valve beats on the HRP performance was studied by replaced the check valve with a simple weighted impulse valve as shown in Figure The waste valve beat was determined by adjusting the dead weight on the valve stem.
With the waste valve opening area kept constant, adding weights to the valve will allow a high flow rate through the waste valve and will reduce its number of valve beats each minute. Taking into account the principle of the water hammer effect, a phenomenon occurs when the flowing water is suddenly brought to rest by closing the waste valve which results in a sudden increase in pressure in the pipe.
Figure Drawings of a modified waste valve. The variations of the supply flow rate, Qs, with delivery flow rate, Qd, are shown in Figure It may be seen that an increase of waste valve beating decreases both flow rates.
Figure 12 illustrates the variations of the delivery head Hd with a delivery flow rate for different valve beatings. The delivery head seems to decrease when valve beats per minute was increased. However, there was not much difference over a wide range of flow conditions when waste valve beats per minute was varied. It should be noted that with an increase in waste valve beats per minute, the time required to close the waste valve decreases.
Thus, an increase of waste valve beats per minute decreases the quantity wasted per cycle. The results from this study show that an increase of waste valve beats per minute will increase , , and pump efficiency. Therefore, we must then try to make the waste valve beating as fast as possible. However, if the waste valve beating is too high, there will be no build up of the powerful hammer pulse, and the flow through the waste valve is stopped.
Figure Supply flow rate vs. Figure Delivery head vs. Figure Head ratio vs. Figure Efficiency vs.
Summary and Conclusions The influence of any conditions of operation and performance on the rate of pumping and wasting in a HRP has been investigated in this study.
The experiments on a HRP were conducted by which each of the following factors could be varied independently: a supply head, b air chamber pressure, and c waste valve beats per minute. Performance curves for variation of the head ratio, flow rate ratio, and pump efficiency at each condition have been determined. Using and as parameters, the performance curves facilitated an understanding of its operation. Though the points are somewhat scattered, it can be seen that the flow-rate ratio at which the maximum efficiency occurs becomes higher as the supply head increases.
It is also apparent that an increase in the supply head, decreases water loss at the waste valve Qw. Under the action of the supply head, Hs, the water in the drive line is accelerated. As the flow velocity increases, the disc of the waste valve rises due to the drag of the plate. The closure will be very rapid.
However, there was no significant difference on the HRP performance over a wide range of flow conditions when air chamber pressure was varied.
An increase in waste valve beats per minute tends to decrease the supply flow rate, delivery flow rate, and delivery head. But it tends to increase the head ratio, the flow-rate ratio, and the overall efficiency of the pump.
It must be pointed out that there is only a limited range of waste valve beating values for each particular HRP system. The dominant factors controlling the functioning of the HRP are the waste valve beats per minute and the supply head.
A good waste valve design and proper adjustment are very essential for smooth and efficient HRP operation. For a given supply head, the HRP is tuned to pump the greatest amount of water possible, and this normally occurs when the waste valve beats per minute value is maximum.
A more detailed analysis of the specific applications and the corresponding economic factors would be necessary to identify completely the relative merits of a HRP. Furthermore, work is in progress to study the technical feasibility for increasing lift of a conventional pump using a HRP.
Appendix The HRP working cycle is as follows. Figure HRP working cycle: a wasting period. The process begins when water enters the drive pipe from a specific elevation height at a high flow rate.
The discharge valve is a simple nonreturn valve. Another solution is to have a mechanism such as a snifting valve that automatically inserts a small bubble of air when the suction pulse described above reaches the pump. This tube is in effect the same as the diaphragm, but it is implemented with more widely available materials. The air in the tube cushions the shock of the water the same as the air in other configurations does.
This should not be confused with the volumetric efficiency, which relates the volume of water delivered to total water taken from the source. The portion of water available at the delivery pipe will be reduced by the ratio of the delivery head to the supply head.
Actual water delivered will be further reduced by the energy efficiency factor. Very high ratios of delivery to supply head usually result in lowered energy efficiency.
Suppliers of rams often provide tables giving expected volume ratios based on actual tests. Drive and delivery pipe design[ edit ] Since both efficiency and reliable cycling depend on water hammer effects, the drive pipe design is important.
MUHAMMAD TANIMU DAUDA
It should be between 3 and 7 times longer than the vertical distance between the source and the ram. Commercial rams may have an input fitting designed to accommodate this optimum slope. The drive pipe should be of constant diameter and material, and should be as straight as possible. Where bends are necessary, they should be smooth, large diameter curves. Even a large spiral is allowed, but elbows are to be avoided.
PVC will work in some installations, but steel pipe is preferred, although much more expensive. If valves are used they should be a free flow type such as a ball valve or gate valve.
The delivery pipe is much less critical since the pressure vessel prevents water hammer effects from traveling up it. Its overall design would be determined by the allowable pressure drop based on the expected flow. Typically the pipe size will be about half that of the supply pipe, but for very long runs a larger size may be indicated.
PVC pipe and any necessary valves are not a problem. Starting operation[ edit ] A ram newly placed into operation or which has stopped cycling should start automatically if the waste valve weight or spring pressure is adjusted correctly, but it can be restarted as follows:  If the waste valve is in the raised closed position, it must be pushed down manually into the open position and released. If the flow is sufficient, it will then cycle at least once.
If it does not continue to cycle, it must be pushed down repeatedly until it cycles continuously on its own, usually after three or four manual cycles. If the ram stops with the waste valve in the down open position it must be lifted manually and kept up for as long as necessary for the supply pipe to fill with water and for any air bubbles to travel up the pipe to the source.
Design and Construction of Hydraulic Ram Pump
This may take some time, depending on supply pipe length and diameter. Then it can be started manually by pushing it down a few times as described above. Having a valve on the delivery pipe at the ram makes starting easier.
Closing the valve until the ram starts cycling, then gradually opening it to fill the delivery pipe. If opened too quickly it will stop the cycle. Once the delivery pipe is full the valve can be left open.
Common operational problems[ edit ] Failure to deliver sufficient water may be due to improper adjustment of the waste valve, having too little air in the pressure vessel, or simply attempting to raise the water higher than the level of which the ram is capable. The ram may be damaged by freezing in winter, or loss of air in the pressure vessel leading to excess stress on the ram parts.
These failures will require welding or other repair methods and perhaps parts replacement.
It is not uncommon for an operating ram to require occasional restarts. The cycling may stop due to poor adjustment of the waste valve, or insufficient water flow at the source. Air can enter if the supply water level is not at least a few inches above the input end of the supply pipe.Handa, and A. These failures will require welding or other repair methods and perhaps parts replacement.
Hydraulic Ram Pump
E Technical University of Warsaw , However, the pumping of water is not done in one go or continuously but by discontinuous pushes induced by pressure waves. Figure 7: HRP body with diaphragm tank.
Sheikh, C. A more detailed analysis of the specific applications and the corresponding economic factors would be necessary to identify completely the relative merits of a HRP.
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