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Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).pdf - Ebook volumes of their extremely popular book BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy, the third. In this Article, we have shared a review and a free pdf download link (Google Drive) of the BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF which includes. wfhm.info The Motivation Manifesto BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).
It forms the anterior wall of the true pelvis, and is related to the urinary bladder. The medial or symphyseal surface articulates with Superior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the acetabulum, above the obturator foramen. It has three borders and three surfaces. The superior border is called the pectineal line or pecten pubis. It is a sharp crest extending from just behind the pubic tubercle to the posterior part of the iliopubic eminence. With the pubic crest it forms the pubic part of the arcuate line.
The anterior border is called the obturator crest. The border is a rounded ridge, extending from the pubic tubercle to the acetabular notch. The inferior border is sharp and forms the upper margin of the obturator foramen. The pectineal surface is a triangular area between the anterior and superior borders, extending from the pubic tubercle to the iliopubic eminence. The pelvic surface lies between the superior and inferior borders. It is smooth and is continuous with the pelvic surface of the body of the pubis.
The obturator surface lies between the anterior and inferior borders. It presents the obturator groove. Inferior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the ramus of the ischium, medial to the obturator foramen. It unites with the ramus of the ischium to form the conjoined ischiopubic rami.
For convenience of description the conjoined rami will be considered together at the end. The pubic tubercle provides attachment to the medial end of the inguinal ligament and to ascending loops of the cremaster muscle. In males, the tubercle is crossed by the spermatic cord Figs 3. The medial part of the pubic crest is crossed by the medial head of the rectus abdominis.
The lateral part of the crest gives origin to the lateral head of the rectus abdominis, and to the pyramidalis Fig. The anterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a attachment to the anterior pubic ligament medially, b origin to the adductor longus in the angle between the crest and the symphysis, c origin to the gracilis, from the margin of the symphysis, and from the inferior ramus, d origin to the adductor brevis lateral to the origin of the gracilis, and e origin to the obturator externus near the margin of the obturator foramen Figs 2.
The posterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a origin to the levator ani from its middle part, b origin to the obturator internus laterally Fig. The pectineal line provides attachment to a the conjoint tendon at the medial end, b the lacunar ligament at the medial end, in front of the attachment of the conjoint tendon; c the pectinate ligament along the whole length of the line lateral to the attachment of the lacunar ligament, d the pectineus muscle which arises from the whole length of the line Fig.
The upper part of the pectineal surface gives origin to the pectineus Fig. The pelvic surface is crossed by the ductus deferens in males, and the round ligament of the uterus in females. The obturator groove transmits the obturator vessels and nerve. See attachments on conjoined ischiopubic rami. It forams the posterior boundary of the obturator foramen.
The ischium has a body and a ramus Figs 2. Body of the Ischium This is a thick and massive mass of bone that lies below and behind the acetabulum. It has two ends, upper and lower; three borders, anterior, posterior and lateral; and three surfaces, femoral, dorsal and pelvic.
The upper end forms the posteroinferior two-fifths of the acetabulum. The ischium, ilium and pubis fuse with each other in the acetabulum. The lower end forms the ischial tuberosity.
It gives off the ramus of the ischium which forms an acute angle with the body. The anterior border forms the posterior margin of the obturator foramen. The posterior border is continuous above with the posterior border of the ilium. Below, it ends at the upper end of the ischial tuberosity. It forms part of the lower border of ilium. It also forms part of the lower border of the greater sciatic notch. Below the spine the posterior margin shows a projection called the ischial spine.
Below the spine the posterior border shows a concavity called the lesser sciatic notch. The lateral border forms the lateral margin of the ischial tuberosity, except at the upper end where it is rounded. The femoral surface lies between the anterior and lateral borders. The dorsal surface is continuous above with the gluteal surface of the ilium. From above downwards it presents a convex surface adj oining the acetabulum, a wide shallow groove, and the upper part of the ischial tuberosity.
The ischial tuberosity is divided by a transverse ridge into an upper and a lower area. The upper area is subdivided by an oblique ridge into a superolateral area and an inferomedial area. The lower area is subdivided by a longitudinal ridge into outer and inner area Fig.
The pelvic surface is smooth and forms part of the lateral wall of the true pelvis. Conjoined Ischiopubic Rami Bones 13 The inferior ramus of the pubis unites with the ramus of the ischium on the medial side of the obturator foramen. The site of union may be marked by a localized thickening. The conjoined rami have 1 two borders, upper and lower, and 2 two surfaces, outer and inner. The upper border forms part of the margin of the obturator foramen. The 7ower border forms the pubic arch along with the corresponding border of the bone of the opposite side.
The inner surface is convex and smooth. It is divided into three areas, upper, middle and lower, by two ridges.
The ischial spine provides a attachment to the sacrospinous ligament along its margins and b origin for the posterior fibres of the levator ani from its pelvic surface. Its dorsal surface is crossed by the internal pudendal vessels and by the nerve to the obturator internus Figs 2. The lesser sciatic notch is occupied by the tendon of the obturator internus. There is a bursa deep to the tendon. The notch is lined by hyaline cartilage.
The upper and lower margins of the notch give origin to the superior and inferior gemelli respectively Fig. The femoral surface of the ischium gives origin to a the obturator externus along the margin of the obturator foramen and b the quadratus femoris along the lateral border of the upper part of the ischial tuberosity Fig.
The dorsal surface of the ischium has the following relationships. The upper convex area is related to the piriformis, the sciatic nerve, and the nerve to the quadratus femoris.
The groove transmits the tendon of the obturator internus Fig. The attachments on the ischial tuberosity are as follows. The superolateral area gives origin to the semimembranosus, the inferomedial area to the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps femoris, and the outer lower area to the adductor magnus Figs 2. The inner lower area is covered with fibrofatty tissue which supports body weight in the sitting position.
The sharp medial margin of the tuberosity gives attachment to the sacrotuberous ligament. The lateral border of the ischial tuberosity provides attachment to the ischiofemoral ligament, just below the acetabulum. The greater part of the pelvic surface of the ischium gives origin to the obturator internus. The a The upper border gives attachment to the obturator membrane. The upper ridge gives attachment to the upper layer of the urogenital diaphragm.
The perineal membrane is attached to the lower ridge. The upper area gives origin to the obturator internus. The middle area gives origin to the sphincter urethrae and to the Hj Bones 15 deep transverse perinei, and is related to the dorsal nerve of the penis, and to the internal pudendal vessels. The lower area provides attachment to the eras penis, and gives origin to the ischiacavernosus and to the superficial transverse perinei Fig.
It is a deep cup-shaped hemispherical cavity on the lateral aspect of the hip bone, about its centre. It is directed laterally, downwards and forwards. The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly, this deficiency is called the acetabular notch.
It is bridged by the transverse ligament. The nonarticular roughened floor is called the acetabular fossa. It contains a mass of fat which is lined by synovial membrane.
A horseshoe-shaped articular surface or lunate surface is seen on the anterior, superior, and posterior parts of the acetabulum.
It is lined with hyaline cartilage, and articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. The fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum is attached to the margins of the acetabulum; it deepens the acetabular cavity. The primary centres appear, one for the ilium during the second month of intrauterine life; one for the ischium during the fourth month; and one for the pubis during the fifth month.
At birth the hip bone is ossified except for three cartilaginous parts. These are i the iliac crest; ii a Y-shaped cartilage separating the ilium, ischium and pubis; and iii a strip along the inferior margin of the bone including the ischial tuberosity. The ischiopubic rami fuse with each other at 7 to 8 years of age Fig. The secondary centres appear at puberty, two for the iliac crest, two for the Y-shaped cartilage of the acetabulum and one for the ischial tuberosity.
Ossification in the acetabulum is complete at years, and the rest of the bone is ossified by years. The anterior superior iliac spine, pubic tubercle and crest and the symphyseal surface may have separate secondary centres of ossification. This is a large gap in the hip bone, situated anteroinferior to acetabulum, between the pubis and the ischium. It is large and oval in males, and small and triangular in females. It is closed by the obturator membrane which is attached to its margins, except at the obturator groove where the obturator vessels and nerve pass out of the pelvis.
The greater sciatic notch is wider in females 75 than in males The acetabulum is large in males, and its diameter is approximately equal to the distance from its anterior margin to the pubic symphysis. The chilotic line extends from the iliopubic eminence to the iliac crest. In females, the pelvic part of the chilotic line is longer than the sacral part. The curvatures of the iliac crest are more pronounced in males. The iliac fossa is deeper in males. The pubic crest is shorter in males.
The lower margin of the ischiopubic rami is more everted in males, for the attachments of the crus of the penis with inturned ischial spine.
The preauricular sulcus is more marked in females. The obturator foramen is large and oval in males, and small and triangular in females. The subpubic angle is more in females and is Like any other long bone it has two ends upper and lower, and a shaft Figs 2. The upper end bears a rounded head whereas the lower end is widely expanded to form two large condyles.
The head is directed medially. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards.
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The head is directed medially upwards and slightly forwards. The shaft is directed obliquely downwards and medially so that the lower surfaces of the two condyles of the femur lie in the same horizontal plane.
Upper End The upper end of the femur includes the head, the neck, the greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter, the intertrochanteric line, and the intertrochanteric crest.
These are described as follows. Head 1. The head forms more than half a sphere, and is directed medially, upwards and slightly forwards Fig. It articulates with the acetabulum to form the hip joint. A roughened pit is situated just below and behind the centre of the head. This pit is called the fovea. Blood supply, a The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery.
These arterial twigs enter the acetabular notch and then pass along the round ligament to reach the head Fig. This set constitutes the main supply and damage to it results in necrosis of the head following fractures of the neck of the femur.
After epiphyseal fusion, the lateral epiphyseal arteries anastomose freely with the metaphyseal arteries. Neck 1. It connects the head with the shaft and is about 3. It makes an angle with the shaft. The neck-shaft angle is about in adults. It is less in females due to their wider pelvis. The angle facilitates movements of the hip joint. It is strengthened by a thickening of bone called the calcar femorale present along its concavity. The neck has two borders and two surfaces.
The upper border, concave and horizontal, meets the shaft at the greater trochanter. The lower border, straight and oblique, meets the shaft near the lesser trochanter. The anterior surface is flat. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric line. It is entirely intracapsular. The articular cartilage of the head may extend to this surface. The posterior surface is convex from above downwards and concave from side to side. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric crest. Only a little more than its medial half is intracapsular.
It is crossed by a horizontal groove for the tendon of the obturator externus. The angle of femoral torsion or angle of ante. It is about 15 degrees. Blood supply. The intracapsular part of the neck is supplied by the retinacular arteries derived chiefly from the trochanteric anastomosis.
The vessels produce longitudinal grooves and foramina directed shaft. The upper border of the trochanter lies at the towards the head, mainly on the anterior and postero- level of the centre of the head. The extracapsular part of the 2. The greater trochanter has an upper border neck is supplied by the ascending branch of the with an apex, and three surfaces, anterior, medial medial circumflex femoral artery. The apex is the inturned posterior part of the posterior border.
The anterior surface is rough ln its a Greater Trochanter l teral part. The medial surface presents a rough impression above, and a deep trochanteric 1. This is large quadrangular prominence located fossa below. The lateral surface is crossed by an at the upper part of the junction of the neck with the oblique ridge directed downwards and forwards. Lesser Trochanter It is a conical eminence directed medially and backwards from the junction of the posteroinferior part of the neck with the shaft.
Intertrochanteric Line It marks the junction of the anterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. It is a prominent roughened ridge which begins above, at the anterosuperior angle of the greater trochanter as a tubercle, and is continuous below with the spiral line in front of the lesser trochanter.
The spiral line winds round the shaft below the lesser trochanter to reach the posterior surface of the shaft Fig. Intertrochanteric Crest It marks the junction of the posterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. It is a smooth-rounded ridge, which begins above at the postero-superior angle of the greater trochanter and ends at the lesser trochanter. The rounded elevation, a little above its middle, is called the quadrate tubercle. Shaft In the upper one-third of the shaft, the two lips of the linea aspera diverge to enclose an additional posterior surface.
Thus it has four borders, medial, lateral, spiral line and the lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity and four surfaces anterior, medial, lateral and posterior. The gluteal tuberosity is a broad roughened ridge on the lateral part of the posterior surface. In the lower one-third of the shaft also, the two lips of the linea aspera diverge as supracondylar lines to enclose an additional, popliteal surface.
Thus, this part of the shaft has four borders, medial, lateral, medial supracondylar line and lateral supracondylar line and four surfaces, anterior, medial, lateral and popliteal.
The medial border and medial supracondylar line meet inferiorly to obliterate the medial surface. Lower End The lower end of the femur is widely expanded to form two large condyles, one medial and one lateral. Anteriorly, the two condyles are united and are in line with the front of the shaft. Posteriorly, they are separated by a deep gap, termed the intercondylar fossa or intercondylar notch, and project backwards much beyond the plane of the popliteal surface.
Articular Surface The shaft is more or less cylindrical. It is narrowest in the middle, and is more expanded inferiorly than superiorly. It is convex forwards and is directed obliquely downwards and medially, because the upper ends of two femora are separated by the width of the pelvis, and their lower ends are close together.
In the middle one-third, the shaft has three borders, medial, lateral and posterior and three surfaces, anterior, medial and lateral. The medial and lateral borders are rounded and ill-defined, but the posterior border is in the form of a broad roughened ridge, called the linea aspera. The linea aspera has distinct medial and lateral lips. The medial and lateral surfaces are directed more backwards than towards the sides. The two condyles are partially covered by a large articular surface which is divisible into patellar and tibial parts.
The patellar surface covers the anterior surfaces of both condyles, and extends more on the lateral condyle than on the medial Fig. Between the two condyles, the surface is grooved vertically.
It is separated from the tibial surfaces by two faint grooves. Different and Unique Unlike most of the other books in the market that are more like journals and seem a tad difficult to understand, this book is more about explaining the concepts to the students and is completely user-oriented.
Chaurasiya happens to be one of the best authors on human anatomy and in this book, he has given all the little insights that are necessary for the student to understand the human body in an effective manner.
In these regards, this book is very unique because it has been authored by a very renowned person in the field. Vast Portion Covered This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy.
It comprises of highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs and so on. Most importantly, the book contains detailed information on the wall of thorax, thoracic cavity and the pleura, pericardium and the heart. Because of these reasons, the book becomes a one-source of knowledge for medical students studying the human anatomy.
Make notes every time you dissect or learn from the cadaver. Learn to make more of diagrams, examiners mostly stick to your presentation rather than your content, so a couple of diagrams and charts can help you win the race.
About the Author This book has been authored by Dr B. He is an Indian doctor and an educationist. Dr Chaurasiya has written many books to date. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. It covers medical problems in areas like the lower limb, abdomen and pelvis. The book is essential to both students and professionals. The contents include: Regional and Applied, and Dissection and Clinical.Here, in this post, we have shared the links to download all the three volumes of Human anatomy book by BD Chaurasia.
The anterior surface is directed downwards, forwards and slightly laterally. The anterior superior iliac spine.
Fracture of the patella should be differentiated from a bipartite or a tripartite patella Fig. Upper End The upper end of the femur includes the head, the neck, the greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter, the intertrochanteric line, and the intertrochanteric crest. The middle rough area on the posterior surface receives the insertion of the tendocalcaneus and of the plantaris.
It lies between the tibia above and the calcaneum below. It is entirely intracapsular. Blood supply, a The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery.
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