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This is something that the Portuguese historian Rui Bebiano b, p. Therefore, it is the responsibility of researchers in the social and human sciences to rescue the study of political violence in Portugal and to bring it to the collective memory arena. Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of interest: Author A declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author B declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Bibliography Amaro, R. Antunes, C. Bebiano, R. Bebiano Eds.
Braga, I. Cruzeiro, M. Anos inquietos: vozes do movimento estudantil em Coimbra Cabrera, A. Camacho, J. Terrorismo em Portugal, a guerra esquecida. Cardina, M. Accessed 5 May Lisboa, Tinta-da-China. Carvalho, M.
Alfragide: Oficina do Livro. Cerezales, D. Cerqueira, A. Lisboa: Parsifal. Collotti, E. Fascismo, fascismi. Firenze: Sansoni. Costa, J. O terrorismo e as FP 25 anos depois. Martins Ed. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra. Lisboa: Fenda. Dugos, C. Ferreira, A. Loff, F. Soutelo Eds. Hastings, A.
London: Search Press. Porto: Caminhos Romanos. Lindim, I. Carnaxide: Editora Objectiva. Loff, M.
Delgado, M. Loff, A. Clunny, C. Monteiro Eds. Pereira Eds. Porto: Editora da UP. Dictatorship and revolution: socio-political reconstructions of collective memory in post-authoritarian Portugal. Macedo, J. As cinzas dum tempo perdido. Madeira, J. Das origens ao 25 de Abril Lisboa: Tinta da China.
Marchi, R. Marques, F. Martins, J. Mattoso, J. O Estado Novo Lisboa: Editorial Estampa. Miguel, F. Volume II: Lisboa: Esfera do Caos. Moura, V. Portugal e o passado. Narciso, R. Lisboa: D.
Nogueira, C. Volume XII.
Portugal e o Estado Novo Pimentel, I. A historia da PIDE. Porto: Figueirinhas. Pinto, D. Master dissertation, Universidade Fernando Pessoa.
Madrid: Akal. Raby, D. Lisboa: Editora Salamandra.
Luís Sttau Monteiro e Felizmente há Luar!.pdf
Rezola, M. Lisboa: Esfera dos Livros. Rocha, R. Os melindrosos arquivos da PIDE. Rosas, F. Lisboa: Tinta-da- China Rosas, F. Vendas Nova: Bertrand Editora. Santos, J. Serra, J. Suplemento 9. Porto: Livraria Figueirinhas.
This revolution prompted deep structural transformations in Portugal, particularly at economic, social and cultural levels Rezola These are the three last organisations under analysis in the present study. The waves of violence which occurred after the April Revolution were caused by the reaction of two different factions — the extreme right and the extreme left — to the changes introduced by the democratic process.
This was, thus, the context of the eruption of popular anti-communist violence in the so-called Hot Summer of , particularly in the north and central regions of Portugal, which were rural areas mainly composed of Roman Catholic small landowners. These landowners did not receive well the socialist proposals of the Revolution Council in power and, in some cases, responded to the call of reactionary individuals and organisations to show their dissatisfaction by attacking Communist Party headquarters Cerezales However, this date also laid the foundations for a new wave of political violence, this time conducted by the extreme-left Costa Thus, the FP emerged in with two main purposes.
First, to stop the actions of the extreme right once again in power due to the counter-revolution of 25 November , which re-established the capitalist order, repressing the proliferous social movements and even some rights obtained by the workers after the April Revolution Sousa Second, to attain a real socialist revolution Costa State of the Art In the Portuguese context, themes such as political violence and armed struggle have been very little explored, and the few existent studies have been mainly conducted through historiographic lenses and based on document analysis.
This leaves a gap in the field of social and human sciences research, which takes into account, for instance, personal stories of involvement in politically motivated violence, as well as attempts to produce in-depth accounts of this social phenomenon. In this section, we will map the relevant literature about the Portuguese armed struggle which took place in the three different periods of time considered in this article.
In order to collect the sources mentioned, we performed an online literature search using a series of keywords. We decided to not focus on media coverage of the phenomena under study since this has been already done see Soutelo a. The doctoral research conducted by Miguel Cardina on the Portuguese Marxist-Leninist organisations, which resulted in a book Cardina , filled the knowledge gap about this type of organisations.
However, it did not give a primordial place to politically motivated violence committed by such organisations. In the s, there were two important scholarly contributions regarding the rise of the Portuguese radical left and armed organisations made by Martins and Loureiro a , b. Rui Bebiano wrote about the social context lived in Portugal in the s.
This context was marked by accounts of international armed violence e. There is also one article published by Tereza Viegas dedicated to the BR, listing the actions carried out by this organisation, as well as its ideological influences and aims Viegas A few former pre-revolution militants have also been prolific regarding the publication of their memoirs.
Some pre-revolution militants have opted for a semi-academic route, combining some research mainly document analysis, but also interviews and their own personal experience.
However, it is interesting to note that in some of the books e. Counter-Revolution Period Literature concerning the right-wing armed organisations which fought in the couple of years that followed the April Revolution is even scarcer.
The first two books on the subject were authored by journalists, one Portuguese and the other German, and published in In the same vein, the journalist Miguel Carvalho has recently published a book on the armed violence carried out by the ELP and the MDLP after the April Revolution, trying to demonstrate that this period was characterized by enormous violence Carvalho Riccardo Marchi has also produced a great amount of literature on the Portuguese right-wing, however, he only deals superficially with the political violence committed by organisations such as the ELP or the MDLP Marchi There are also two books of memoirs produced by MDLP militants.
One of them — The Ashes of a Lost Time — was published in by one of the repentants i. The book is, in some way, an attempt to justify his militancy in the FP, as well as its choice of denouncing the organisation to the police Macedo The FP was also the focus of two other books. The Post-Dictatorship Memory Politics and Political Narratives in Portugal The debates surrounding the Portuguese armed struggle have been historically undervalued by the social and human sciences in this country.
Such research projects tend to be limited to a generic and superficial approach. This scenario leads to the question: why is this so? We argue that the answer to such a question starts in the late s with the rise of post-dictatorship memory politics, which encompassed a historical revisionism that sought to whitewash the memory of the dictatorship and deny the revolutionary genesis of democracy in Portugal.
However, rewinding a few years, it is possible to see that it was not always so. Although at this point, the anti-fascist memory gained a clear hegemony in the political narratives, it did not last long. Actually, such organisations, as well as their armed activity, started to be perceived as marginal and, to some extent, eccentric, a sort of exception in the history of resistance, which did not deserve to be framed academically.
To this contributed the circumstances that started in the morning of the 25 April Their objective was the seizure of power by the workers and the creation of a socialist society. In addition, the most reactionary sectors of the Portuguese right-wing also decided, in the Summer of , to take part in armed violence. These organisations were based in Spain and in the north of Portugal and had the support of sectors of the Catholic hierarchy and right-wing parties Dugos In this period, extreme-right organisations were also part of larger operations, such as the murder of Father Max in a bomb attack, and the bomb explosion at the Cuban Embassy in Lisbon, which killed two embassy employees.
The military movements or counter-revolution, as it is called by some, of 25 November closed the revolutionary phase of the process of transition to democracy, which meant the defeat of radical leftist organisations and movements in Portugal Cerqueira Such a defeat was further legitimised by the loss of the left in the constitutional elections of , as well as in the presidential elections of From then on, a new stage began with the institutionalization of a representative democracy.
Acabava de construir uma casa suntuosa.
Aquilo de contemplar a casa O momento em que D. Curto incidente; ao cabo de dois minutos, D. Evarista respondia, entusiasmada, que era a coisa mais bela que podia haver no mundo. Um dos oradores, por exemplo, Martim Brito, rapaz de vinte e cinco anos, pintalegrete acabado, curtido de namoros e aventuras, declamou um discurso em que o nascimento de D.
Evarista era explicado pelo mais singular dos reptos.
Felizmente Ha Luar
O atrevimento foi grande, pensaram as duas damas. Sim, que o adiasse. Uma delas, a mais piedosa, chegou a admitir, consigo mesma, que D. O terror acentuou-se. Positivamente o terror. Quem podia, emigrava.
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Um desses fugitivos chegou a ser preso a duzentos passos da vila. Evarista ficou sem pinga de sangue. A mucama correu instintivamente para a porta do fundo. Quanto ao moleque, a quem D. Desejo saber primeiro o que pedis. Nada mais imprudente do que essa resposta do barbeiro; e nada mais natural.
Era a vertigem das grandes crises. O perigo era tanto maior quanto que, no meio mesmo desses graves sucessos, o alienista metera na Casa Verde umas sete ou oito pessoas, entre elas duas senhoras, sendo um dos homens aparentado com o Protetor.
O dia acabou alegremente.Secondly, the police interrogation records are composed of inaccurate, often lacunar, and very partial questions and answers. Portugal e o Estado Novo In this sense, we demonstrated how part of the Portuguese historical identity has been manipulated by political and ideological interests and motivations, which influence the collective memory.
Um dos oradores, por exemplo, Martim Brito, rapaz de vinte e cinco anos, pintalegrete acabado, curtido de namoros e aventuras, declamou um discurso em que o nascimento de D. Subsequently, he returned to London, where he worked as a journalist. A superioridade moral da democracia. The second current, politically steeped in the triumphant regime brought by the 25 November counter-revolution, privileges the historical reading which recognises the role of the winning political and military forces.
Queres ver? Use approved recoverylrecycling equipment to capture therefrigerant every time an air conditioning system is discharged. Regarding the BR, there is only one very recent half memorialist, half academic piece.