Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Hypnerotomachia: The Strife of Loue in a Dreame by Francesco Colonna. One of the most famous books in the world, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, read by attempt was made to produce an English version but the translator gave up. The first, complete, English-language translation in five hundred years of one of the world's most compelling fantasies. It is hard to believe that one of the most.

Hypnerotomachia Poliphili English Translation Ebook

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Godwin's first complete translation of "Hypnerotomachia Poliphili" (HP) into English has a wonderfully researched Introduction complete with charts, tables. Book Reminders from Jordan Hedgecock · Cover of: Classic eBooks Classic eBooks from Tom Morris · Cover of: Book Reminders. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili "The Strife of Love in a Dream" ; ISBN- ; Genre: History; E-book Available: No ever since, was first published in English by Thames & Hudson in In an attempt was made to produce an English version but the translator gave up.

Italy covers an area of , km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa , Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia , while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.

The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe , North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana , a period of more than years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished.

Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script.

During the Early Middle Ages , Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.

These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism , science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Raphael and Machiavelli.

Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.

By the midth century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in , establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.

From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation , fuelling a large and influential diaspora.

Despite being one of the main victors in World War I , Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.

Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP.

Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture, it lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco and connected to the Doge's Palace.

It was the chapel of the Doge , has been the city's cathedral only since , when it became the seat of the Patriarch of Venice , archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice at San Pietro di Castello ; the basic structure of the church dates from to , the large amount of subsequent work has been to embellish this rather than replace elements. The famous main facade has an ornamented roofline, Gothic , the gold ground mosaics that now cover all the upper areas of the interior took centuries to complete.

In the 13th century the external height of the domes was increased by hollow drums raised on a wooden framework and covered with metal.

Without this, they would not now be visible from the piazza.

For its opulent design, gold ground mosaics, its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building has been known by the nickname Chiesa d'Oro, it achieves an Oriental feeling of exoticism through blending Byzantine and Islamic elements, but remains unique, a product of Italian workers of all sorts.

The first St Mark's was a building next to the Doge's Palace, ordered by the doge in , when Venetian merchants stole the supposed relics of Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria , completed by ; the church was burned in a rebellion in , when the populace locked Pietro IV Candiano inside to kill him, restored or rebuilt in Nothing certain is known of the form of these early churches. From the present basilica was constructed; the consecration is variously recorded as being in —85, , and reflecting a series of consecrations of different parts.

The size of the church was increased in all directions to the north and south, the wooden domes replaced by brick, which required thickening such walls as were retained.

In the supposed body of Saint Mark was rediscovered in a pillar by Vitale Faliero , doge at the time. The building incorporates a low tower, believed by some to have been part of the original Doge's Palace; the Pala d'Oro ordered from Constantinople was installed on the high altar in In the church, its mosaics, were damaged by a serious fire in that part of the city; the main features of the present structure were all in place by except for the narthex or porch, the facade.

The basic shape of the church has a mixture of Italian and Byzantine features, notably "the treatment of the eastern arm as the termination of a basilican building with main apse and two side chapels rather than as an equal arm of a centralized structure".

In the first half of the 13th century the narthex and the new facade were constructed, most of the mosaics were completed and the domes were covered with second much higher domes of lead-covered wood in order to blend in with the Gothic architecture of the redesigned Doge's Palace. As with most Venetian buildings, the main structure is built in brick, with the arches given moulded terracotta or brick decoration, with stone columns, horizontal mouldings, some other details.

The brick remains in place, but covered over except in a few places; the basic structure of the building has not been much altered.

Its decoration has changed over time, though the overall impression of the interior with a dazzling display of gold ground mosaics on all ceilings and upper walls remains the same; the original unadorned structure would have looked different, but it is that gradual decoration was always intended.

The succeeding centuries the period after the Venetian-led conquest of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade of and the fourteenth century, all contributed to its adornment, with many elements being spolia brought in from ancient or Byzantine buildings, such as mosaics, capitals, or friezes; the Venetian sculptors of other capitals and friezes copied the Byzantine style so that some of their work can only be distinguished with difficulty.

The exterior brickwork became covered with marble cladding and carvings, some much older than the building itself, such as the statue of the Four Tetrarchs. The latest structural additions include the closing-off of the Baptistery and St Isidor's Chapel, the carvings on the upper facade and the Sacristy , the closing-off of the Zen Chapel.

During the 13th century the emphasis of the church's function seems to have changed from being the private chapel of the Doge to that of a "state church", with increased power for the procurators , it was the location for the great public ceremonies of the state, such as the installation and burials of Doges, though as space ran out and the demand for grander tombs increased, from the 15th century Santi Giovanni e Paolo became the usual burial place.

The function of the basilica remained the same until , after the Epic poetry An epic poem, epos , or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

Francesco Colonna

Another type of epic poetry is epyllion , a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme; the term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. It refers to the erudite, shorter hexameter poems of the Hellenistic period and the similar works composed at Rome from the age of the neoterics; the most famous example of classical epyllion is Catullus Originating before the invention of writing, primary epics were composed by bards who used complex rhetorical and metrical schemes by which they could memorize the epic as received in tradition and add to the epic in their performances.

The oldest epic recognized is the Epic of Gilgamesh , recorded In ancient Sumer during the Neo-Sumerian Empire ; the poem details the exploits of Gilgamesh , the king of Uruk. The first epics were products of oral history poetic traditions. Oral tradition was used alongside written scriptures to communicate and facilitate the spread of culture. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means.

Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status and importance; this facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it.

Parry and Lord contend that the most source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance.

Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both.

Epics tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values as they pertain to heroism. In his work Poetics, Aristotle defines an epic as one of the forms of poetry, contrasted with lyric poetry and with drama in the form of tragedy and comedy.

And we know also that he had had two dreams: a dream, within a dream. It was written long ago: I love cusps. Or not. This is part of the point.

My authorial point. A point is like a period.

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A point that is like a period that is impregnated is like a period in hyperspace. My point is that reading requires Dimensionality.

However, upon closer scrutiny The reason why the narrator heralds the sculptor over the worker so much is that, I imagine, the author sees himself as the sculptor of his story. Ask Marjorie Perloff or Kenneth Goldsmith!

Or nearly everyone these days…. Following triumphal processions and further spectacles, the nymph reveals that she is in fact that Polia 'whom you love so well'.

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After a ceremony resembling marriage, they embark for Cythera in Cupid's boat. Polia then takes over the narrative, relating how Poliphilo fell in love with her when he first glimpsed her combing her hair at a window in Treviso. Not only does she reject his advances, but to fulfil a pledge in surviving the plague, she dedicates herself to a life of eternal chastity.

Poliphilo visits her secretly at the temple of Diana, and when he falls into a deathlike swoon at her feet, she drags his body away and hides it. But Cupid appears to her in a vision, and compels her to return and kiss Poliphilo back to life.

Venus blesses their love, and the lovers are united at last. The overall literary merit of this work is debatable, and some critics have dismissed it as unreadable. Certainly it is written in an odd hybrid of Latin vocabulary imposed upon Italian syntax; this idiosyncratic language would probably have been as difficult for sixteenth century readers as it is today.

Others have seen the text as a stereotypical product of its time. Liane Lefaivre, for instance, suggests that it is in many ways a nondescript example of 'a highly stylized genre'.

Professor Weiss, meanwhile, declared it to be 'a serious runner up for the title of most boring work in Italian literature'. But its torturous plot and prose have been interpreted by some as a true reflection of the unconscious and mysterious world of the dreamer. George D.

Painter eloquently argues that the author 'felt that reality itself is mysterious, and may legitimately be described in terms of mystery; that only perplexing symbols, labyrinthine narrative, and intentionally impenetrable prose-style can express the night-world of the unconscious mind'. More recently, Joscelyn Godwin praises the work's intensity of atmosphere, describing it as a sustained erotic fantasy 'saturated with the desire to gaze, to taste, and to consume'.

The book has, however, been universally and justly celebrated for its beautiful woodcuts and overall sumptuous design. It should be remembered that at the time it was produced in , the inclusion of woodcut illustrations in printed books was still a relatively new phenomenon. Although the number of elaborately illustrated volumes increased throughout the s, this work is exceptional for the way in which the woodcuts integrate harmoniously with the text, following the plot with a closeness unparalleled in other fifteenth-century books.

The name of their artist, however, is not known.

Evidently possessing extraordinary range and ability, several contenders have been suggested, including Mantegna, Bellini and Carpaccio. The woodcuts are undoubtedly influenced by such artists, but no satisfactory solution as to the real identity of their creator has yet been reached. The work is further lauded for the originality of its design.

Several sequential double page illustrations add a visual dimension to the progression of the narrative, and act like an early form of the strip cartoon. There is an obsession with movement throughout which is driven on by the illustrations, resulting in the impression of bodies moving from one page to the next.

Other typographical innovations include playing with the traditional layout of the text; in the opening shown here, for example, the pages are shaped in the form of goblets.

Although it is by no means a practical manual on the subject, Poliphilo encounters numerous buildings, ornaments, gardens and sculptures on his journey. Many of these are described in detail in the text, as well as being portrayed in the illustrations.Moreover, Colonna would invent new forms of language; the book contains some uses of Egyptian hieroglyphs , but they are not authentic. The application of the "rule of four" method enabled them to piece together portions of a dark Renaissance secret that has avoided human knowledge for centuries; the author of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Francesco Colonna, was a Renaissance humanist in Florence.

The Real Rule of Four

Genus Theocriti et de inventione bucolicorum. These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.

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