revised the manuscript of his book, Inside Scientology (published in ), but could (I've described it in detail in my book Inside Scientology/Dianetics, also. Inside scientology: the story of America's most secretive religion / Janet Reitman. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN the Church of Scientology is lifting the lid on life inside the worlds fastest growing cult. and one the Church of Scientology tried desperately to ban. 2MB PDF.
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May 8, PDF | While the control and discipline of the body and human behavior is a perennial Messengers during her research for Inside Scientology. Inside the Church of Scientology: An Ethnographic Performance Script. Giselle Velásquez1. Abstract. Members of religious organizations find answers in rituals . Nov 27, ABOUT INSIDE A CHURCH. At the intersection of Sunset Boulevard and L. Ron Hubbard Way in. Hollywood, you'll find one of the most.
Some people assume that religious practice is a guaranteed human right, but even a superficial examination of world events shows that many atrocities occur in the name of God or religion. Universally, therefore, religious belief must receive absolute protection, but religious practice stemming from that belief must receive protection only until it begins to violate the rights of its members or nonmembers.
Following from this last point, I argue that even if Scientology contains a theology and cosmology that some members interpret religiously, its organizational actions and behaviours raise serious human rights questions. Without wanting to review the pronouncements from all German officials about the organization, I conclude that the German government had good reason to investigate Scientology's activities in its country.
It also had compelling reasons to inquire about the well-being of German citizens in Scientology facilities in the United States and elsewhere. I will share just a few of the documents that led me to these conclusions, and some of them are available in numerous world wide web sites on the Internet. While I am aware of the historical and cultural context in which the debate about Scientology in Germany is occurring see Hexham and Poewe, , I remain convinced that German officials and others based their concerns about the organization primarily upon analyses of the organization's stated policies and sanctioned practices including many of the ones that I am about to discuss.
For a number of my social scientific colleagues around the world, the debate between Germany and the U. Many of my social scientific colleagues had examined some Scientology documents and possibly participated in some Scientology events, and they had deduced that the organization is religious in nature.
Bryan R. Wilson b. He reached this conclusion after comparing Scientology's belief system with twenty characteristics usually found within what he called "known religions" Wilson, Significantly for the current debate in this country, he dismissed historical information from the early s about Dianetics presenting itself as "a mental therapy and Scientology a science.
Scientology also employs his opinion in arguing before an American court that the organization has the right to keep secret its upper level materials Wilson, In fact, I have made precisely the argument that Wilson dismisses.
Ron Hubbard Scientology's founder claimed that Scientology was a religion because he saw the claim as a marketing device to make money and avoid taxes Kent, b: 25ff; Miller, , as well as a way "to reduce the likelihood of governmental interventions against it for allegedly practising medicine without a license" Kent, Moreover, Scientology denies its reputedly religious nature if it is attempting to enter a country that might react adversely to religious proselytization such as Japan or Greece [Kent, a: ].
Nevertheless, the historical reasons behind Scientology's religious claims, as well as the organization's selectivity in making the claims, do not diminish the probability that many Scientologists view their commitment as a religious one. From a social scientific perspective, and probably from a legal one as well, the objective "truth" of an ideology is not the determinant of a group's "religious" designation.
Mere belief in supernatural beings or forces may be enough to get an ideology designated as religious, even if the origins or doctrines of the belief system are highly suspect. Along these lines, the inspirational figure in the sociology of religion, Max Weber, refused to exclude charlatans from his identification of charismatic figures, since the devotion of followers was a far more salient fact than authenticity. After mentioning two types of charismatic figures, Weber added that "[a]nother type is represented 3 Marburg Journal of Religion: Volume 4, No.
Similarly, from a social scientific perspective, a belief system is religious if it contains supposedly supernatural elements, regardless of the accuracy of those elements. Perhaps unlike the religious founder whom Weber named, Hubbard's sophisticated swindle has been exposed by a number of researchers for example, Atack, ; Kent, ; Miller, who have shown that his religious alignment was purely expedient.
Now, however, many of his followers see their lives in the context of the doctrines that he developed. Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious. Coinciding with supernatural claims are equally important secular dimensions relating to political aspirations, business operations, cultural productions, pseudo-medical practice, pseudo-psychiatric practice, social services some of which are of dubious quality , and alternative family structures.
A few examples of each dimension will suffice, but countless examples of each one exist throughout both Scientology's literature and the social behaviour of its members. The most salient aspect of Scientology, however, is the totalitarian, some would say fascistic, use of power that holds the organization together.
I will speak about some of these totalitarian uses of power, and in doing so it will be very clear that the German government took the only appropriate avenue open to it. Observers wondered about the fate of Scientology training to Albanian government officials after the recent popular uprisings and social collapse in the late s see Kent, a: A recent publication claims that "WISE [m]embers form a network of highly trained consultants in Hubbard Management Technology who can provide you with tailor-made training programs to suit your company's needs" 4 Marburg Journal of Religion: Volume 4, No.
The Secret Library of Scientology
For all practical purposes, this dimension of Scientology is secular, regardless of how the organization portrays it. The Scientology owned and operated and now tax exempt Bridge Publications, for example, produced a volume solely dedicated to The Fiction of L.
Ron Hubbard Widder, , which discusses his writings of Westerns, adventure stories, mystery and detective stories, romance, fantasy, science fiction, plays, and screenplays among others , and makes little if any mention of his supposedly "religious" writings. The actor and Scientology public relations officer, John Travolta Anderson, 3; Church of Scientology International, , is working on a movie version of Hubbard's science fiction work, Battlefield Earth, while a team of Hollywood producers is developing a film version of the Hubbard pulp novel, To the Stars Reuters, As these current film productions suggest, Scientology is eager to be involved with projects that disseminate its ideology to nonmembers through high profile cultural undertakings.
One vital aspect of this dissemination effort involves cultivating the conversion and support of society's cultural celebrities. Beginning in , Hubbard's "Project Celebrity" targeted what he called "prime communicators" with the hope that they would "mention" Scientology "now and again" [Hubbard], By , thirteen "celebrity centres" existed around the world Church of Scientology International, , and their purpose was "[t]o fully utilize opinion leaders and Scientologists to permeate society and get all the different publics utilizing LRH's Technology in every aspect This organizational push to get everyone using Hubbard's so-called technology has dramatic secular implications for such issues of how to organize an office, how to generate and handle money, and how to measure office growth.
It presumably also may have implications for people's supernatural belief systems, but it is understandable that critics see Scientology celebrities as participating in the dissemination of secular Scientology goals. In addition to free publicity for Scientology, celebrities also give large financial contributions back to the organization. Had Scientologist Chick Corea, for example, received money from the Baden- Wurttemberg state culture ministry for performing at state-sponsored events, then some of that income may have become part of his contributions to the International Association of Scientologists.
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The avowed purpose of this organization is "[t]o unite, advance, support and protect the Scientology religion and Scientologists in all parts of the world, so as to achieve the Aims of Scientology as originated by L.
Ron Hubbard" International Association of Scientologists, [back cover].
What many Germans know, however, is that this organization provided grants to the Church of Scientology International in order to fund the series of anti-Germany ads in the New York Times and the Washington Post both beginning, I believe, on September 15, Utilizing cultural productions and prominent cultural figures, therefore, to disseminate all aspects of Hubbard's so-called tech is an intimate aspect of the organization's overall public relations and it would seem financial strategies.
This program purports to rid the body of drug and radiation residues, and a Scientology publication told a story about an American Gulf War veteran suffering from Gulf War Syndrome who "arrived to do the detoxification program Recently Scientologists applied the Narconon program to children suffering from radiation-related illnesses in Chernobyl Bev, Regardless of how Scientology portrays these claims, they are medical ones that purport to offer a social service, but one about which experts remain highly critical.
In the American state of Oklahoma, for example, a mental health board examined a Narconon program and concluded that "there is substantial credible evidence, as found by the Board, that the Narconon Program is unsafe and ineffective" Mental Health Board, ; reproduced in Lobsinger, Scientology's hatred of psychiatry is worthy of a study in itself, and some of its own documents very clearly indicate that Scientology's primary social purpose is the destruction of psychiatry and its replacement with Scientology techniques.
In, for example, a confidential document written for Scientology's intelligence branch then known as the Guardian Office , the unidentified author, who most certainly was Hubbard himself, had a section entitled "The War.
The original purpose was to clear Earth. The battles suffered developed the data that we had an enemy who would have to be gotten out of the way and this meant we were at war" [Hubbard], . The central target in Scientology's efforts to "take over the field of mental healing" is psychiatry. Indeed, several Scientology organizations, including the Citizens Commission on Human Rights, the International Association of Scientologists, and Freedom magazine are working diligently in attempting to achieve the goal of "Eradicating Psychiatry" Weiland, Called the "Introspection Rundown Auditor Course," this course supposedly "factually handles the last of the 'unsolvable' conditions which can trap a person -- the psychotic break.
The Complex, An insider exposes the covert world of the Church of Scientology
And end forever the 'reason' psychs were kept around with their icepicks and shock machines" Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization, . This course is based upon what Hubbard described as "a technical breakthrough which possibly ranks with the major discoveries of the Twentieth Century. The self- proclaimed "breakthrough" involved isolating the person having the psychotic breakdown while not speaking to the person, giving the person particular vitamins and minerals, determining what incident triggered the illness, then putting the person through a long and complex series of Scientology "counselling" sessions called auditing that focus on the triggering incident Hubbard, Currently this course is at the centre of controversy involving the December 5, death of Scientologist Lisa McPherson in Clearwater, Florida.
After a minor car accident, McPherson exhibited bizarre behaviour -- publicly undressing, speaking in monotone with a fixed stare, exhibiting forgetfulness and confusion, and crying. Against medical advice, she signed herself out of a hospital and into the care of visiting Scientology "friends" who took her to the organization's Fort Harrison Hotel. Seventeen days later, Scientologists took her back to a distant hospital where a doctor was working who was a Scientologist, and he pronounced her dead.
In this context, a Scientology lawyer acknowledged "that the Introspection Rundown remains 'part of church services'" Tobin, 12A. Undoubtedly, therefore, Scientology practices pseudo-psychiatry, and the lawsuit over McPherson's death may establish the extent to which at least one of these practices can have potentially fatal consequences. Scientology portrays the Sea Org as "a fraternal organization existing within the formalized structure of the Churches of Scientology.
It consists of highly dedicated members of the Church [who] take vows of service" Church of Scientology of California, The organization downplays the fact that these people sign billion year contracts. Many indicators point to the fact that Scientology structures the Sea Org in a manner that damages parent-child relations if not the well-being of children in general.
In essence, Sea Org becomes one's new family, often at the expense of spouses and children. In November, , the St. She had joined a group of Scientology staff members called the 'Sea Org. But with her travel time from work, she said she actually had only one hour with her son.
Because of the hour workdays, she couldn't always stay awake for the full hour. After eating, she and her son would divide the remaining half-hour of their family time. I believe the Kleinbergs' account rather than the one by the Scientology spokesperson because I had heard the same scenario about parents having little time to spend with children during an interview with a former Sea Org member that I conducted in December, At Flag in Florida during the late s and early s, infants apparently stayed in a Scientology-run nursery during the day when parents worked, and usually parents would return from work at about in the evening and spend about an hour-and-a-half with their children before taking them back to the nursery at for bed.
Parents then caught a bus back to the Sea Org, and finally did not leave for the night until or later. My informant told me that, in the morning, they would pick up their children from the nursery, have them dressed and in the dining room by AM, drop them back at the nursery, and be on the bus going to work by ten minutes past 8.
This former member added, however, that "there'd be some people who had kids who didn't go home for two or three days in a row. They'd be working all night" Kent interview with Fern, 44, see The Kleinbergs' account about limited family time also rings true because of a series of internal memos of which I have copies from Scientology's Pacific Area Command in Los Angeles, California beginning in early November, These memos centre around an Executive Directive that the commanding officer issued which abolished the one hour nightly family time.
He cited two reasons for doing so. First, he claimed, "[a] thorough research [sic] revealed that there is no LRH [L. Ron Hubbard] reference covering Sea Org members taking 1 hour family time per day. Also to have such break in schedules in the middle of production has been found to be detrimental to production Several parents objected, and their objections were revealing.
One person asked rhetorically, "[h]ow can one keep track of one's child without even an hour a day with the child? This same person acknowledged in his letter of protest that "[i]n the 19 years I have been in the Sea Org in PAC this condition parental neglect, etc.
Taken together, the interview material, media accounts, internal policy directive, and responses point to the fact that parents' time with their children is severely constrained and sometimes eliminated because of the organizational pressure and job demands under which Sea Org members work.
It seems that Scientology, in its Sea Org manifestation, becomes something akin to an alternative or "fictive" family structure to its members see Cartwright and Kent, , receiving more time and commitment than their own children. On a related point, the new Sea Org family to which adults devote their lives may at times place children in medically detrimental situations. This fictive family may not always be a medically responsible one. The informant whom I interviewed in , for example, complained to me that "the nursery conditions were terrible.
Under these conditions, children developed medical problems according to my informant, Fern , because the facility did not have an isolation nursery. Consequently, common childhood illnesses such as ear infections spread rapidly among the children and remained in the nursery population for a long time. To support her assertion, this informant showed me medical records that she kept of her child's visits to doctors while the child was under nursery care, and compared them with similar records from after the time that she and her child left Sea Org and the nursery arrangement.
The child made seventeen visits to the doctor's office during an eight month period while in the nursery, then only four visits in the twenty-nine months following the family's departure from the organization Kent interview with Fern, Researchers always must be cautious in accepting as fact the account of a single person, but I heard similar stories about the condition of children's facilities in Scientology's child care program on the other side of the American continent -- Los Angeles, California.
The person who related the account had occasion to visit the children's facility called the Cadet Org in the late s or early s, and she saw an infant who was the child of a man she knew. She had lots of, like, little fruit flies and gnats on her body and she had been so ill that she had tremendous amounts of mucous plugging her nose and her eyes were, like, welded shut with mucous and I, I just snapped in my head Kent Interview with Pat, After this incident of allegedly witnessing severe child neglect, the person began plotting how she would leave the organization.
The final example of alleged child neglect is documented in a report filed by the commanding officer of the Cadet Estates Organization in late October, , concerning the hygiene of three children -- ages 4, 8, and 10 or Two of the children had lice, and for one of them it was a recurring problem.
A guardian was in charge of them, but she "is herself on mission quite often. The children would dress themself [sic] and we have no data who does the laundry or room hygiene for the children" Gabriele, 1.
We must be careful when interpreting this data on possible child neglect or endangerment, since none of it is current. Sufficient indicators exist, however, that investigative officials in the United States and elsewhere should examine Scientology's treatment of Sea Org children. Because the attitude among some Sea Org leadership appears to be that children hinder adults from performing their vital assignments, researchers should not be surprised to learn of pressures that Sea Org women felt to either abort pregnancies or give-up children for adoption.
My informant told me that when Sea Org operated on ships during the mid s, women knew that they were not allowed to raise children on the vessels. Consequently, they experienced pressure to have abortions. She told me that, "on the ship, I know of a lot of people that [sic: who] had abortions, because they didn't want to leave the ship.
It wasn't like anybody said 'You have got to get an abortion. If you don't you're going to leave" Kent interview with Fern, Years later I saw the same pressures described in a legal declaration by Mary Tabayoyon, who became a Scientologist in , joined Sea Org in , and stayed in it until her departure in She stated that in , while on the Scientology base in Hemet, California, "members of the Sea Org were forbidden to have any more children if they were to stay on post[,] and the Hubbard technology was applied to coercively persuade us to have abortions so that we could remain on post" M.
Tabayoyon, 2. The pressure came partly through what Scientology called "ethics handling," which involved the organization pressing people to conform to Hubbard's policies and the organization's directives. Tabayoyon herself "gave up my child due to my greatly misguided obligation and dedication to the Sea Org" M. Tabayoyon, 4. She relinquished her child after being "indoctrinated to believe that I should never put my own personal desires ahead of the accomplishment of the purpose of the Sea Org" M.
Tabayoyon, 5. Taken together, the interviews, legal declarations, media accounts, and internal documents present 10 Marburg Journal of Religion: Volume 4, No. Sea Org obligations override many personal and family obligations and responsibilities, and devotion to the Scientology cause often appears to take priority over the needs of children.
Equally disturbing, however, are accounts that some older children and teenagers have had to endure, along with Sea Org adults, the abuses of Scientology's forced labour and reindoctrination programs. Although several labour and intensive instruction programs have operated within the Scientology organization over the years, among the most intense ones is the Rehabilitation Project Force -- usually just called the RPF.
Even discussing the policies and techniques that Hubbard wrote by using ideas other than his own was called "verbal tech" and apparently was a punishable act see Hubbard, Begun in early while Hubbard and his crew still were at sea, it now operates in several locations around the world.
I cannot confirm the existence of RPFs in several other locations. In a phrase, the RPF program places Scientology's most committed members in forced labour and re-indoctrination programs. The operation of these programs raises serious human rights questions, and their continuation reflects badly on nations that allow them to operate unchecked. Particular blame must be placed on American state and federal authorities, since at least three RPF programs have operated for years on American soil.
Moreover, the American Internal Revenue Service granted Scientology tax exemption despite what almost certainly are illegal conditions under which RPF inmates must work, study, and live. Extensive material about RPFs in the United States has existed for years in various court cases, and now most of this information is readily available on the World Wide Web.
German government officials know about the RPF, and almost certainly this knowledge played a major role in the government's continued opposition to the Scientology organization. Getting assigned to the RPF is a traumatic event for most people. Procedurally, what is supposed to happen is that leaders call a hearing, known as a "Committee of Evidence," to evaluate a person's performance or attitude.
A former member described this body as "a Scientology trial, where the Committee [members] act as prosecutors, judges and jury rolled into one" Atack, Committees sometimes obtain evidence against the person from security checks called sec checks [see Kent interview with Young, 49] , which the organization portrays as "Integrity Processing" or "Confessional Auditing," but which is really a form of interrogation Atack, In fact, in , Hubbard wrote a policy called "Interrogation" about how to use the device known as an E-meter as an interrogation device rather than merely as a spiritual aide in counselling or auditing sessions as the organization represents it to the outside world Hubbard, It consisted of over one hundred questions, almost all of which inquire about previous or current participation in a wide range of deviant and criminal acts including spying, kidnapping, murder, drugs, sex, and Communism.
The sec check specifically asked, "Have you ever had any unkind thoughts about LRH? One former member-turned critic, Robert Vaughn Young, reported that he was sec-checked for several hours a day for about two weeks Kent Interview with Young, An even more severe form of sec check was the "gang bang sec check," a process that presumably takes its name from group rape a slang term for which is gang bang. Gang bang sec checks involve two or more interrogators rapidly firing questions and verbal abuse at a victim who is hooked up to or holding an E-meter.
A brief description of this practice occurs in a legal declaration sworn under oath by former member Stacy Young. She declared that her repeated protests about the way that the now-current head of Scientology David Miscavige treated staff led Miscavige to send her to the RPF in September, S.
Young, 8, The specific incident that triggered her assignment was that Miscavige learned that Young had reacted to his alleged screaming fits by telling someone that he was "a brutal, tyrannical bully" S. Young, During the interrogation, they screamed and swore at me. They accused me of crimes against Scientology. They demanded that I confess to being an enemy agent S. Inmates are not sentenced to the programs for specific lengths time.
Instead, they remain in until they complete a rigorous program of hard physical labour, constant verbal abuse from immediate superiors, social isolation, intense co-auditing and sec checking, and study of Hubbard policies and techniques.
A series of policies about the RPF began appearing in January, when Hubbard was aboard ship, and a few revised versions of them have leaked out of the organization. One of these early documents revealed the totalistic nature of the program when it said that "[a] member of the RPF is a member of the RPF and of nothing outside of it, till released" Boards of Directors of the Churches of Scientology, 3.
Part of the program consisted of hard physical labour -- building structures, cleaning, renovating, garbage disposal, and moving furniture. Typically work projects of this nature took about ten hours a day, since people were supposed to get "around 7 hours sleep, 5 hours study or auditing, 30 minutes for each meal, and 30 minutes personal hygiene, per day" 12 Marburg Journal of Religion: Volume 4, No. They wore dark worksuits and were prohibited from speaking unless necessary with persons outside the RPF, and they ate and slept separate from other Sea Org members Boards of Directors of the Churches of Scientology, They had to run everywhere they went, and often they had to run extra distances for punishment.
On a ship, running punishments usually meant laps around the deck Pignotti, On land, running punishments sometimes meant running around a pole for hours at a time, often in hot sun see Kent Interview with Pignotti, 22; S.
Severe restrictions were placed upon visitation rights with spouses or children Boards of Directors of the Churches of Scientology, Accounts from former inmates indicate that RPF life can be extremely harsh, degrading, and abusive. Certainly experiences varied somewhat according to year and location, but Hanna Whitfield's description of RPF at the Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, Florida in captures many common elements from other accounts that I have heard and read: Some of us slept on thin mattresses on the bare cement floor.
Some had crude bunk beds.
There was no place for clothes, so we lived out of suitcases and bags which were kept on bare floors. Some privacy was maintained by hanging sheets up between bunk beds and between floor mattresses. The women and men had separate bathrooms and toilets but they were small.
We were not allowed to shower longer than 30 seconds. We had only to run through the shower and out the other end. There was no spare time for talk or relaxation. We awoke at A. After [a] quick shower and change of clothing, we had to audit each other and 'rehabilitate' ourselves until P.
There were no days off, four weeks a month. Our food consisted of leftovers from staff. On occasions which seemed like Christmas, we were able to prepare ourselves fresh meals if leftovers were insufficient Whitfield, Certainly the amount of work that RPF members performed varied according to era and circumstances, but in some instances conditions became unbelievably bad.
Her RPF team would "start working in the morning and we would work all night into the next morning and then we worked through the next day until we got our thirty hours and then we'd go to sleep" Kent Interview with Pat, From comments that Bavaria's Minister of the Interior, Dr. Ron Hubbard on the Apollo ship that served as the headquarters of international Scientology operations from the s to the s.
According to Donald A.
For example, it has been noted to engage in harassment and abuse of civil courts to silence its critics, by identifying as Fair Game people it perceives as its enemies.
Classification as church or business From until , Scientology was administered by an organization called the Hubbard Association of Scientologists HAS , established in Arizona on September 10, In , the IRS stripped all US-based Scientology entities of their tax exemption, declaring Scientology's activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard. Controversy followed the church on those years, but its growth continued in the s.
New churches were formed in Paris , Denmark , Sweden , and Germany In the s the religion spread through Europe: in Austria , Holland , Italy , and Switzerland Centers of Scientology were in 52 countries by the time the 80s came in and grew to 74 by Scientology cites its tax exemption as proof the United States government accepts it as a religion. State Department has criticized Western European nations for discrimination against Scientologists in its published annual International Religious Freedom report, based on the International Religious Freedom Act of This exemption, however, is related to a German-American double-taxation agreement, and is unrelated to tax-exemption in the context of charities law.
In several countries, public proselytizing undergoes the same restrictions as commercial advertising,[ citation needed ] which is interpreted as persecution by Scientology. Although the religious nature of Scientology has been questioned both in the United States and around the world, Scientology has been acknowledged as a new religion as manifested in the Church's court victories and the gain of religious rights and privileges that are exclusive to legally established religious bodies.
The word Scientology and many related terms , including L. Ron Hubbard is a registered trademark. Religious Technology Center, the owner of the trademarks and copyrights, takes a hard line on people and groups who attempt to use it in ways unaffiliated with the official Church see Scientology and the legal system. Under The Guardian's Office later renamed the Office of Special Affairs or OSA , Church members and contracted staff from Bureau One later organized and committed one of the largest penetration of United States federal agencies ever perpetrated by an organization not affiliated with a foreign government that is, one such as the KGB.
This operation was named Operation Snow White by Hubbard. No building, office, desk, or file was safe from their snooping and prying.
No individual or organization was free from their despicable conspiratorial minds. The tools of their trade were miniature transmitters, lock picks, secret codes, forged credentials and any other device they found necessary to carry out their conspiratorial schemes. This action was known as Operation Freakout.
Using blank paper known to have been handled by Cooper, Scientologists forged bomb threats in her name. The Church's plan was discovered at the same time as its Operation Snow White actions were revealed.
CNN News Group then chose to publish the reactionary correspondence, with confidential information redacted, on its web site. Of these activities the current Church laments Unfortunately, the church continues to be confronted with it. And the ironic thing is that the people being confronted with it are the people who wiped it out. And to the church, that's a very frustrating thing. The reason seemed to be that this gave the church a layer of protection.
In , regarding its announcement that it had hired a private investigator to look into the background of a Boston Herald writer who had written a series on the church, Robert W. Thornburg, dean of Marsh Chapel at Boston University , said, "No one I know goes so far as to hire outsiders to harass or try to get intimidating data on critics. Scientology is the only crowd that does that. In when BBC journalist John Sweeney was making Scientology and Me , an investigative report about the Church and was the subject of harassment: In LA, the moment our hire car left the airport we realised we were being followed by two cars.Scientology also employs his opinion in arguing before an American court that the organization has the right to keep secret its upper level materials Wilson, Kent, Stephen A.
Some people assume that religious practice is a guaranteed human right, but even a superficial examination of world events shows that many atrocities occur in the name of God or religion. In this context, a Scientology lawyer acknowledged "that the Introspection Rundown remains 'part of church services'" Tobin, 12A. For example, a Sea Organization member must be free to travel on short notice and sometimes for extended periods, which is not easily balanced with parenting young children.
I am fully aware that many of my social scientific colleagues insist that researchers should restrict using the controversial brainwashing term only to situations where there is incarceration and physical maltreatment Anthony, By way of example, for several years the Church of Scientology International operated private boarding schools for the children of Sea Organization members in Riverside and Los Angeles counties.
Some people assume that religious practice is a guaranteed human right, but even a superficial examination of world events shows that many atrocities occur in the name of God or religion.