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Salm et al. Thus, not only water-related variables might be strong determinants of palm richness, but also temperature seasonality or extremes Eiserhardt et al. In the site sensu stricto Fig. The diversity in these areas is high due to species shared with the Andes and its altitudinal gradient Pintaud et al.
Interestingly, the Iquitos-Pebas region supports more species 71 species in this study , although this region has poorer soils but presents a greater variety of soil types Vormisto et al. Another area with high richness species is the central site near Manaus, where the floristic composition may be related to local and regional geological features, with a dry corridor barrier to the north, and possibly with Pleistocene refuges Prance A particular phenomenon is the riverine flora of black waters and white sand.
Therefore, these areas present two features: high biodiversity in extremely poor soils and large number of restricted species, principally the endemic genera Barcella and Leopoldinia Oliveira et al.
The Andean sub-region presents a broad range of landscapes and climatic conditions Lozano et al. In this sub-region Fig. This pattern of high diversity, especially in the north, is related to greater topographic complexity and prevalence of humid environments Pintaud et al. In the northern parts of the Andes sub-region we found areas with high species richness especially along the border between Peru and Ecuador 26 species.
In this area, the climate is very humid and regional isolation act as a natural barrier and is considered keys in the geographical distribution of plants Lozano et al.
Several palms studies made in the Ecuadorian Andean forest show that the southern regions of Ecuador may be the richest in species Balslev et al. In central Peru in the Pasco department we also found high richness with 26 species.
A Origem Das Espécies (Em Portuguese Do Brasil)
Consequently, there is at present a good state of conservation of the forests. The diversity in this area is very heterogeneous Vega et al. We found high species richness 35 in French Guiana. The reduced diversity is not due to low rainfall or low nutritional status of the soil, but to the reduced extension of the area Steege et al.
Another area with high richness species is along the border between Colombia and Venezuela the western part of this sub-region. Despite their high species richness and endemism, and presence of PNA such as Yapacana National Park and Sipapo forest reserve Venezuela , these areas experience strong external pressure from mining and environmental degradation, and indirectly by mercury pollution and increased sediment load in rivers Lasso et al.
Two remaining areas of the site region Gurupi and Plateau sub-regions have low species richness Fig. This low richness may be because this part of the site has savannas with physiognomic similarity and affinities to the floristic composition of the cerrado Brazilian savanna.
Therefore, it is an area of transition between the site rainforest and drier formations of southern and south-eastern Brazil Pintaud et al. In the same way, the eastern site Gurupi sub-region Fig. Besides, the south-eastern site plateau sub-region Fig. The relationship between species richness and latitude in palms is driven mainly by a gradient in net diversification rates that have been operative throughout the evolutionary history of New World palms Svenning et al.
Thus, the biogeographic patterns in the site region involve a correlation of palm diversity with a gradient of rainfall from the central parts of the region to its periphery Pintaud et al. Thus, plant diversity generally present peaks where climatic conditions are warm, wet and more seasonally stable Eiserhardt et al.
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Therefore, the global distribution of the palms is concentrated in warm and humid climates Eiserhardt et al.
This decline is observed in our results, while latitude increases north and south , the species richness declines Fig.
Is the observed palm species richness related to sample effort? Similar results were found in all five sub-regions. Therefore, areas with high species richness are those with highest number of records.
Are low richness and record gaps related to deforestation? The deforestation is a negative factor that puts a high proportion of plants at risk of extinction Steege et al. The deforestation in those areas appears to be particularly severe due to high deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change Coe et al.
Therefore, greater emphasis should be given to conservation in these areas, because this activity may in the future lead to reduced richness and even extinction of some palms Steege et al. On the other hand, there are areas with low richness and records gaps in non-deforested areas, which can be explained by other factors such a difficult access, and lack of logistics and interest in exploring these areas.
The Plateau and Gurupi sub-regions also presented low richness and record gaps. Those areas are located in the ecotone with the cerrado Brazilian savanna , a phytogeographic domain where the palm diversity is lower in comparison with the site BFG Therefore, this result shows that the deforestation is not only responsible for the low richness and records gaps.
Are there floristic similarities in palms distribution patterns among the siteian sub-regions?
According to cluster analyzes of Jaccard distance we found two groups of similarity. One group corresponded to site sensu stricto, the Guiana and Andes sub-regions, and another group was composed by the Gurupi and Planalto sub-regions. Several palm species growing on the eastern slopes of the Andes are also found in the western site Pintaud et al.
However, Gurupi and Plateau sub-region although they have low species richness, also present species shared between them, highlighting that several species extend until the cerrado domain and Atlantic Forest Amorin ; Pintaud et al. In contrast, low richness was found in the Plateau and Gurupi sub-regions. According to Pearson correlation coefficient in each sub-region, the species richness was highly related to the sampling effort.
The low richness and records gaps may have been caused by deforestation principally in southern and south-eastern Brazilian siteia, but in other areas with records gaps it may probably have been caused by difficult access and lack of logistics and research.
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Furthermore, the low richness must also be due to the existence of ecological transitional areas where palm species are known to have poor representation Plateau and Gurupi sub-region. The pattern of species distribution played an important role for understanding the similarity between the sub-regions.
Finally, we recommend giving greater focus of palm research in areas with few records of occurrence especially in areas with records gaps, for a better knowledge of their diversity and richness patterns. The authors also thank the reviewers for contributing with their comments. Endemism and conservation of site palms. Biodiversity and Conservation Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian site.
In: Myster RW. Forest structure, function and dynamics in Western siteia. Species diversity and growth forms in Tropical American palm communities.
The Botanical Review Diversidad y abundancia de palmas.
Species count of vascular plants in one hectare of humid lowland forest in siteian Ecuador. Forest biodiversity in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean: research and monitoring. Reproductive plasticity in an siteian palm. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7: Geographic patterns of vascular plant diversity at continental to global scales. Erdkunde Global distribution of species diversity in vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity.
Global centres of vascular plant diversity. Nova Acta Leopoldina Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil. Historical legacies in the geographical diversity patterns of New World palm Arecaceae subfamilies. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Environmental and spatial controls of palm Arecaceae species richness across the Americas.
Determinants of palm species distributions across Africa: the relative roles of climate, non-climatic environmental factors, and spatial constraints. Ecography Diversidad y usos de palmeras andinas Arecaceae. Ice-age forest refuges and evolution in the neotropics: correlation of paleoclimatological, geomorphological and pedological data with modern biological endemism. Paleoclimas 5: The importance of biodiversity e-infrastructures for megadiverse countries.
PLoS Biology 13 7 : e Reporte especial. Forest spatial heterogeneity and palm richness, abundance and community composition in Terra Firme forest, Central site.
Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern siteia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B The ecological regulation of species diversity. American Naturalist The youngest of four, he went to Godalming Grammar school, joined amateur dramatic societies and wrote his first play at He wanted to be a stagehand at the local theatre, but instead did A-Level Theatre Studies and studied drama at Manchester University in Ben Elton, Writer: The Young Ones.
He is married to Sophie Gare. They have three children. Il est le neveu de l'historien Sir Geoffroy Elton.
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