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May Allah reward her for this noble deed, amin! Canberra, 8 March, M. He claims to be originally from Bombay in India. He is years old corresponding to between 15 and 17 years old of human beings. His father called Hd was years old. His great grandfather died when he tried to listen to the angels conversation in heaven, and shooting stars were thrown at him.

They can live for thousands years. Some of them live for 4 thousand, 5 thousand, 6 thousand, even 7 thousand years, but very rarely. Unfortunately, Ibn Kanjr did not tell us the approximate jinn population of this earth. As they had been here on the earth before human beings, and have lived much longer, they must have filled this globe with their kind. Fortunately, they are created differently from us, and live differently, so that, in general, we do not disturb each other.

Where do the jinn live? They live everywhere. They also live in deserts and are called ghouls , in isolated places, in caves, in mountains, in valleys, in jungles, on roofs of houses, in rooms, in bathrooms as well as ditches gutters.

As enemies of Allah their names and duties are as follows: 1. Thabr: He, his troops and children come to people who are being afflicted with disaster or are having problems to make them angry with Allah and have hostile attitudes towards Him. In order to protect ourselves from his temptation we should say, as Ibn Kanjur told the author, Adhu billhi minash shayt.

He, his troops and children create hatred between a husband and his wife in order to end up with divorce. To protect ourselves from his temptation, we should say, Adhu billhi minash shayt. He, his troops and children make women looked more beautiful when they go out in the street to tempt people to commit adultery with them.

The word awar in Arabic means one-eyed. He, his troops and children come to people to make and spread lies. He, his troops and children come to the markets to create dissension, quarreling and fighting among people. To protect ourselves from his temptation, we should say, Adhu billhi minash 2 Ibls was one of the jinn created from smokeless fire.

Allah says, And He created jinn from fire free of smoke Qurn, al-Rahmn The root meaning of jinn is janna, yajunnu to cover, to hide or junna yujannu in passive voice, meaning to be covered or to be hidden. The Civilization of the Jinn The Jews, the Christians and the Muslims among the jinn go to their respective place of worship: the temples, the churches and the mosques respectively. They also live in the houses of people with their respective religious followers. Christian jinn live in the houses of Christians, etc.

The jinn who live in the house of the author is: Muhammad and his wife Zubaydah and their children Sad and Marjn. They joined him in eating and say alhamdu lillah after eating, then stayed on the roofs. At the evening they also joined him the meal and stayed in the room. At night some of them sleep on the chairs, others on the carpet. Sometimes they went to Masjid al-H. Muslim jinn pray for their hosts.

Some of them wake the host for the fajr prayer.

The jinn who accompany people qarn also pray for their hosts. Statues are very attractive to the jinn. These statues have reflection or vapour that is attractive to them like the aroma of delicious food to men. Dolls do not attract them for unknown reason. Dolls reflections diminish after being touched by children. The devil occupies vacant bed if Allahs name is not mentioned.

What the Prophet means is the unnecessary redundant extra room will be left to be occupied by satan. Some jinn live in the private parts and the wombs of indecent women. They like places of entertainment, especially where alcohol is served.

Ibn Kanjur said that his father took him once as a child to Ibls in order to be blessed by him. He said that Ibls looked very ugly and can change his appearance with anything. His tail is between 4 and 6 cm long, his tall is between and cm, but he can make himself tall until 10 meters.

He has a very big palace with millions of servants and guards of devils, and he has other palaces in other places. The jinn have good sense of smell and like fragrance. Babies of one to two yeas old can see the jinn in its original form. Lost ships and planes were covered with special light or surrounded with thousands of devils. They live in Bermuda Triangle. What people used to claim to have seen aliens are not really alien. Ibn Kanjur had traveled more than one hundred times in outer space and has found no alien.

If a Muslim encounters a jinni s he should read yatul kurs and surah al-S. If a Muslim crossing or passing by the Bermuda Triangle reads the Quran, Ibls and his army will not be able to harm him.

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The pilot reporting to be lost in this area stated that the sky turned gray, and the instruments of their planes malfunctioned. He was actually entering the world of the jinn. The four searching planes were themselves lost and vanished. Another triangle is Formosa triangle in the form of an upside down pyramid: Taiwan on the left, Gilbert island on the right, and Wake island at the bottom.

These areas are the favorite places of devils. A child of two years old who is still developing his eyesight can see with sharper eyes than those of the adult. The jinn also like meeting places of cold and hot water where Ibls has also his kingdom and his assistants. This reminds us of the Prophet who prohibits people from sitting in a place where half is with sunshine and the other half is under the shade, as this place gives power to Ibls.

We know that the meeting of cold and hot air could create power we call storm. Marriage and Married Life in the Jinns World The age of maturity among the jinn is between years and years. Pregnancy period is 15 months containing between 7 and 8 babies, and sometimes 15 babies. The nursing period is as long as human age. The babies sleep very long without any noise.

Then they go to school and universities and become medical doctors, technicians, journalists, etc, like human beings.

Mixed marriage between a human being and a jinni is impossible except if the jinni makes himself visible as human. Pregnancy is impossible as sperms and wombs of humans and jinn are different. Therefore, the story saying the Princess Bilqiss mother was a jinni is not true. Categories of Jinn The skin of the jinn have different colours: red, white, black, yellow, and any colour known by men, the colours of the spectrum.

Some jinn have wings and fly. Others are like snakes and dogs. Some can change their forms from one form to another. There is a group of jinn who are like black dogs with white circles on top of their eyes. They are the most dangerous jinn. According to a h. Since then, you will see many black dogs in Makkah, especially outside the pilgrimage season.

I have never heard them barking, and I have never seen their droppings. I was also told that in the past when Black cats could also be jinn transforming their forms. Cats with other colours could also be jinn. Cats in history were adored as well as hated.

They were associated with evilness and witches and some were burned alive. Some jinn are never able to make themselves visible. Others like Ifrt has a tremendous power to do so. A kind of devil called Mrid can also make himself visible with difficulty. When a jinni becomes visible he is vulnerable, can be caught and killed by citing ayatul kursi. Some jinn are afraid of humans, as man can complain to their leader.

When this happens the jinni will be severely punished. Jinns law, said Ibn Kanjur, is stricter than human law. Do the jinn have religions, and if so, what are they? Are these black dogs Muslim jinn protecting the Sanctuary Mosque? The next night a police man came to warn him for hitting someone and who complained against him.

Ibn Taymiyah was reported to have said that the jinn like to appear as dogs, snakes or black cats, because black colour gives power to the jinn. Perhaps it is because black colour absorbs all colours of the rainbow. When Abu Hurayrah told the incident to the Prophet, he confirmed that Allah will protect us from Satan the devil if we read it before going to sleep.

Among the jinn there are Jewish, Christians, Buddhists and Communists. There are some Muslim jinn, but their numbers are few, like a drop of water compared to the ocean. Like humans where Muslims fight Communists like in Afghanistan , Muslim jinn also fight Communists jinn.

When there was no non-Muslim jinni, the Muslim jinn assisted the mujahidin in Afghanistan against Soviet Unions invasion. Some of them wore green clothes. Some people thought that they were angels. Qarn7 Qarn is a kind of jinn who always accompanies man Every human being has a qarn for a male, and qarnah for a female. The qarn and qarnah are a special kind of weak jinn who have no sexual desire, and therefore they never married. On the authority of Abu Hurayrah the Prophet said that every human being is accompanied by a qarn a jinni accompanying man , When one of his companions asked him, Even you, O Messenger of Allah?

In another h. According to Ibn Kanjur the qarn of the author is called Abdul Hadi. He is staying on his right side. The author related that he had a discussion about Islam with his friend, a lady called Sahar.

This step is a fast track approach in integrating trade and customs union, infrastructure development, Regional Economic Communities RECs , and other sectors. The AU programs are aimed at achieving regional integration through harmonizing efforts of national governments towards regional development.

This is conducted through the coordination and engagement of external partners in order to gain fundings, technological know-hows and expertise on the field, while at the same time mobilizing efforts in gathering the resources and providing consultancy services and technical expertise for all members.

This means that the AU has become the supreme organization with extensive roles to enable its member countries and partners to engage in a more coordinated and synergized manner. Although the program has been arranged, its implementation still faces major obstacles, particularly regarding the provision of funds. However, among Governments, the program is considered to be very successful, especially because the African Peer Review Mechanism APRM , which was initially followed by only 10 member countries in , had increased its number of participants to 33 countries by early The implementation of this mechanism is done by a committee, which supervises, among others, the application of the political, economic, corporate governance, and the socio-economic developments in countries which had signed the MoU on the APRM.

In this regard, the Indonesian Embassy should have the opportunity to engage with the Permanent Representatives of members of AU to get insight information on the needs, potentials and opportunities for strengthening cooperation.

Under the framework of the South-South Cooperation, Indonesia has the capability to offer various technical cooperation with the emphasis on cross-sectors and multi-faceted issues of development that have become a common concern for Indonesia and African countries.

In order to make good use of this capability, the Government of Indonesia should allocate technical assistance programs under the framework of AU—Indonesia, alongside those of bilateral TCDCs. Such partnership would enable Asia and Africa to find breakthroughs and new mechanisms in order to kick start cooperation oneconomic, structural transformation and development strategies.

However, this makes the cost of penetrating the Ethiopian market relatively higher compared to the cost of penetrating other countries in the region. Despite its strong economic performance, Ethiopia still suffers inadequacies due to its relatively closed financial system, its low downloading power, and its lack of infrastructure, which results in problems such as high cost transportation and power outages.

Indonesia can also learn from other countries which have applied different strategies to Ethiopia. These strategies, among others, are: Egypt24 Strategic location presents enormous opportunity for hub Egypt has been enjoying its strategic location at the heart of three regions: The Suez Canal, which connects the Eastern hemisphere to the West, is one of the most important trade routes in the world, and it belongs to Egypt. Egypt also holds an important role in the geopolitics of the region through regional institutions such as the African Union and the Arab League.

Having the advantage of its geographical position makes Egypt a large potential to become the gateway to penetrate the markets of Europe, America, the Middle East and Africa. In , for example, tourism generated income of around USD Indonesian Embassy in Cairo Egypt exports crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, and processed foods to major export destinations such as the US 7.

Table 7: Furthermore, Egypt is experiencing a quite severe political-economic turbulence, which also gave more contraction to the economy. Socio-economic problems such as high unemployment, uneven income distribution, and access to education as well as health services that benefits the people would need to be addressedin order to alleviate poverty and improve living standards.

It therefore is important for Egypt to find other potential trade partners, as any other country would do, to look for alternative markets, which include emerging economies such as China, India, Turkey and Brazil.

Since Indonesia and Egypt have long historical ties and a lot in common, Indonesia should take this opportunity to deepen its relationship with Egypt. Egypt also sees Indonesia as the ideal figure that can provide a good example for the transformation and transition that Egypt is now experiencing. Its entry into force was in July Members are granted full exemption of customs fees, charges and other taxes on agricultural goods, processed agricultural goods and industrial goods.

This protocol grants duty- Protocol free entry into the US for industrial products originated in Egypt, with a specified content manufactured in Israel. The QIZ was implemented in The agreement exempts Agreement both parties from customs duties and other charges on industrial products. Agreement Source: Ministry of Trade and Industry of Egypt, data taken in December By being regional hubs, both will benefit each other through the utilization of the free trade agreements that each country has.

In addition to that, Egypt also has free trade agreements with its surrounding regions, and enjoys preferential tariffs with some countries in Europe and North America. The advantages of these free trade agreements have been experienced by a few Indonesian food, glassware, and textile companies who have made investments in Egypt and then re-exporting the manufactured goods to other countries in different regions. In addition to serving the local market in Egypt, these companies also made Egypt their production base in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe.

What Indonesia can learn from other countries engagement with Egypt? If Indonesian businessmen must learn one particular strategy from other country to penetrate Egyptian market and beyond, it should be China. This strategy is proven to be very effective, as seen in the consistency of the increased profit. The Chinese companies have not withdrawn from the Egyptian market last year but in fact new investments were pumped into Egypt worth USD 80 million this year, which reflects China's support for Egypt under all circumstances.

Relations between the leaders of the two countries have been very close, as President Soekarno of Indonesia and President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt were both the founding fathers of the then largest developing country movement, the Non-Aligned Movement. Bilateral relationship was formally established in , and has been growing even since in all sectors.

From an economic point of view, bilateral trade has been significantly increasing from time to time, making How to engage with Egyptian businessmen Egypt one of the most important non-traditional trade 1. Arab people prefer personal rather than partners for Indonesia.

Meanwhile, from an investment formal relations. So, it is important for point of view, growth has been increasing quite rapidly Indonesian business people to major in inter- in the last few years. Indonesians should be ready for time- whole economic activities. However, it turns out that consuming bureaucracy in Egypt. It is important for Indonesian business persons continuously increased during this transition time.

To further strengthen Indonesia-Egypt trade cooperation, Indonesia also needs to enhance its influence in Egypt. As Egypt is currently in a time of political transformation and economic recovery, it needs international help more than ever, and now is the perfect time for Indonesia to politically and economically invest in Egypt by extending the help and support that Egypt needs in order to increase the positive image of Indonesia among the Egyptian people.

Indonesia can also further optimize the capacity building programs that have been running and explore the possibilities of developing technical cooperation in other fields and to synchronize it with its economy policy toward Egypt in order to get the best result of the capacity building programs.

Egypt Strengths: Indonesia and Egypt have a long-standing relationship, and both countries have signed various economic agreements. Indonesia can assist Egypt in navigating the transition period through enhanced political ties i.

The two countries have established mechanisms to address bilateral issues, such as the Joint Bilateral Commission, the Egyptian—IndonesianBusiness Council, etc. Indonesia sees Egypt as an important partner in the region, particularly in relation to its role as a hub connecting the MENA region and Europe. Thus,Indonesia can use Egypt as a production base. Egypt sees Indonesia as a close partner. The reform movement in Egypt has compelled the government to look for assistance from the international community, and sees Indonesia as one of the suitable partners.

Negative perception on the current situation in Egypt has hampered the interests of Indonesian business people to invest in Egypt. There is no bilateral agreement to facilitate and ease visa applications by Indonesian business people to do business in Egypt. Egypt prefers to do most businesses and trade in large amounts.

Differences in culture and behavior between Indonesia and Egypt. The far distance between Egypt and Indonesia with no direct flight. Great interest from the Egyptian side to do business with Indonesia. Despite the current political instability, Egyptis committed to improvingits national business climate. Currently, there are as many as 1 million Indonesian students in Egypt.

Indonesia should compete with China, India and Japan who progressively invest in Egypt. Industrialization in Egypt is marred by its lack of infrastructure. South Africa27 South Africa is the most advanced economy in the continent, possessing abundant natural resources and arable land. It is a sophisticated and promising market, offering a combination of a well-developed economic infrastructure with a vibrant emerging market economy.

It has advanced and modern financial systems, laws, telecommunication services, and energy infrastructures. Although the economy of South Africa is still dependant on the mining sector, it has long tried to diversify its industrial sector. South Africa is also a major supplier of machineries, equipment tools, processed foods, chemicals, petroleum products, and scientific equipments.

Moving forward through regional governments contacts Diplomatic relations between Indonesia and South Africa were established in August , and were then strengthened by the declaration of a Joint Strategic Partnership in However, these two countries have enjoyed long-standing relations long before formal ties were established. The relationship is currently moving forward in relation to inter-regional government cooperation, which was initiated for the purpose of increasing people to people contacts, promoting direct trade as well as opening access to other regional markets.

In this regard, the Province of West Java of Indonesia and the Provinces of Mpumalanga as well as Limpopo of South Africa had agreed to increase provincial cooperation on economic and technical sectors. Although the Memorandum of Understanding on the provincial partnership is still being established, cooperation in several sectors has already been implemented.

In order to strengthen the cooperation and to do further assessment regarding the plan to formalize the provincial partnership, the three provinces conducted partnership meetings on 17—21 September in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The meeting identified several areas of cooperation and business opportunities which are related to tourism, trade and investments, as well as capacity building programs on various sectors such as fisheries, energy, mining and tea plantation.

The program of cooperation are as follows: Potential export commodities from West Java to Mpumalanga and Limpopo include pulpwood, mineral products, basemetals, textiles, machineries, vegetable products, chemical products, motor vehicles, and products made from ceramic.

The provinces face several challenges in the implementation of the cooperation. Office of the Provincial Government of West Java Today, South Africa is witnessing a growing number of middle-class people, who tend to consume more and selectively, and this has made a significant contribution towards the national downloading power, particularly of those living in urban areas.

Meanwhile, South Africa is also heading towards market liberalization that is conducted through, among others: Trading with South Africa: What to do?

The Indonesian Government should give more attention to the existence of the 1.

Furthermore, the Indonesian Embassy in Pretoria states that Indonesian businesses should also consider the following factors in their efforts to amplify the success of engagements with South Africa: Supported by transport infrastructures that connect the sub-region, South Africa has put more emphasis on those infrastructures to ensure the smooth flow of goods and people among countries in the region.

At the moment, South Africa is undertaking strategies to advance its economy, with the following objectives: Both countries share a lot in common: Furthermore, the depth of relationship between the two countries is reflected in the recent signing of the Indonesia — South Africa Strategic Partnership.

South Africa is a key player in the continent, and plays an important role in the stability of the region. The political decisions made by South Africa have often largely influenced the dynamism of intra-regional relations. The enhancement of bilateral relations between Indonesia and South Africa has played a major role in the improvement of trade and investment access between the two countries.

To date, there has been plenty of promising business opportunities, particularly in the fields of natural resources extraction, construction, agriculture, and services. Mauritius28 Mauritius is an island state located in the Indian Ocean, consist of an area of 1, square km. Language, such as Creole mother tongue , English and French are commonly spoken by the natives, while Asian languages such as India, Pakistan, and China are commonly spoken by the migrants population.

For Mauritians, the languages form a modality to facilitate communication with the foreign communities, in order to promote economic relations and cooperation. The policy includes investment facilitation, simplified procedures for FDI, and the tax reform.

The objectives of both agreements are to create enabling environment to attract investments, as well as to protect the companies that invest in Mauritius. Economic Reform towards an Open Economy Since , the Mauritian Government has launched an economic reform program which aims to open up its economy, facilitate business, improve investment climate and intensify the flow of Foreign Direct Investments FDIs as well as skilled workers.

Within the past 4 years, there have also been fiscal policy reforms. Among those policy reforms are the simplification of business permits and the harmonization of tax rates corporate tax and income tax. The various reforms that Mauritius had carried out have contributed to its resilience in dealing with the global economic recession and the Eurozone Crisis. Furthermore, to overcome the crisis, the Mauritian Government launched an Additional Stimulus Package ASP in order to enable the government, bank and companies to have a burden sharing measure and to cope with the effect of the crisis.

On the contrary, the Eurozone Crisis also creates an opportunity for Mauritius to obtain market shares of the French- speaking countries in Africa and beyond. However, there is an indication that those investments are not entirely or originally coming from Mauritius, as most of them come from foreign companies which invest in Mauritius.

Offshore companies are considered more profitable than onshore companies because the tax rates applied to them are very low, and could even be as low as zero per cent.

Moreover, offshore companies are also considered easier to manage and have more confidentiality assurances than the on-shore ones. Due to its strategic location in the Indian Ocean, around 2, km from the Southeast coast of Africa, Mauritius had positioned itself as a hub in the trade route which links Asia to Africa. In the past few years, Africa has become more and more significant to Mauritius, which is why the Mauritian Government envisaged Mauritius as a strategic gate to Africa, especially for the financial and business sectors.

Thus, Mauritius enjoys preferential access to those countries. Although Mauritius views Africa as a promising market, it also realizes that there are still many obstacles in entering the African market. Some of the obstacles relate to logistics, infrastructure and connectivity. The poor connectivity in Africa has made travel expenses from Mauritius to Africa higher than the travel expenses from Mauritius to Asia. Furthermore, the lack of information, the low business facilitation, the uncertainty of business policy, and the under developed banking sector in mainland Africa are also among the main obstacles for penetration into the African market.

In order to overcome these challenges, Mauritius had developed a particular strategy to enter the African market by targeting specific countries which have good connectivity such as Kenya, Senegal, Nigeria, and Egypt. Indonesia should learn from this strategy. BPPK Mauritius. India had also experienced it.

However, India did not terminate the agreement, but instead decided to have the treaty reviewed in order to prevent further abuses. Reviewing the treaty is more effective than terminating it, as termination will only result in the loss of various benefits that can actually be attained from the DTAA mechanism.

In October , the Mauritian government established a Steering Committee to explore possibilities of developing Islamic financial services in Mauritius. The committee is responsible for reviewing and amending a legal framework to facilitate Islamic banking in Mauritius, which would later be stated in the Finance Act Based on the legal framework, a bank can operate fully as an Islamic bank or offer Islamic banking services. The development of Islamic banking in Mauritius provides an opportunity for Indonesia to further expand and improve cooperation in this field.

From Urbanized to Integrated Markets Africa is characterized by its fragmented and urbanized economy, which is partly due to the lack of connectivity in the continent. Interactions among countries, both social and economic, are difficult as shown by the low level of intra African trade. SSA as compared to other regions Source: As a result, the incurring costs to get access to various centres of economic activities in Africa are higher than the ones that a party would need to pay in other regions such as Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Latin America.

Yet, quite surprisingly, they were able to do so. Africa experienced tremendous growth in its exports, particularly to China and India. Africa has long been known as the largest raw material producers of products such as oil, coal, copper, diamond, coffee, sugar and meat, and this reputation has been suitably welcomed by the demands of the growing middle class in Asia with its large downloading power.

The main idea behind the HIPC and MDRI is that African governments are eligible to be given debt reliefs when they are able to, firstly, show that they have adopted sound and responsible macroeconomic policies through tightened spendings not exceeding their actual capabilities; and, secondly, show that they have prioritized development programs to provide for the poor.

Up until , as many as 34 countries in Africa were able to make use of this scheme. Meanwhile, scholars have also considered the positive developments in Africa that had made it even more competitive, prospective, and productive.

These challenges have affected its regional integration, which is reflected in the low level of intra-trade between African countries.

In an effort to deal with the issue, in its Summit, the African Union has decided that the discussions on the strategy to address these challenges would be its main agenda. The issue of infrastructure and connectivity is also among the major concerns in this research, which are also related to issues such as market penetration, economic performances, market size, ports of entry, rate of trade barriers, and free trade areas.

South Africa is the most advanced country in Sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa has a long-standing relationship with Indonesia and is also the largest trade partner of Indonesia in Africa. Furthermore, South Africa is the prime mover of the SADC, the sub-regional organization in Southern Africa, and is supported with relatively good infrastructure and open economic policy.

All these create a wide opportunity to make South Africa a hub or entry point for Indonesian products destined to penetrate the regional market. The study also confirms obstacles and challenges that need to be addressed properly through various channels, in particular, the Bilateral Trade Commission and the Bilateral Joint Commission.

Meanwhile, in terms of trade value as well as the presence of Indonesian companies and brands within its borders, Nigeria has strong economic relations with Indonesia. Despite all the challenges and uncertainties known to the government and private sectors, Nigeria possesses enormous potential and a profitable market. Kenya and Ethiopia are both strong players in the eastern region of Africa.

Kenya is the prime mover of the East African Community EAC , a sub-regional organization whose level of market integration is regarded as being the most advanced. EAC member countries combine to make up a profitable market and are currently focusing on improving infrastructures to smoothen the flows of goods and people. Ethiopia alone is a substantive market, being the second most populous nation in Africa and hosting a growing middle class. Therefore, Ethiopia is a perfect place to start diplomatic engagements with Africa.

This presents a wide opportunity that the Indonesian Government should optimize. Thus, Indonesia should put more emphasis on this sector by expanding access and by conducting market intelligence. In order to provide comparative studies, the research also investigates the strategies formulated by other countries such as China, India, Australia and Malaysia in their engagements with Africa.

Through these investigations, Indonesia should be able to learn from the strategies of others, and apply them with few adjustments. The research found similarities on the strategies applied by various countries when enhancing relations with Africa. First, they always start with frequent exchanges of visits of high officials, even up to the level of head of state.

This shows the importance of the country and at the same time provides the biggest opportunity for high level lobbies aiming to gain market access. The second step relates to huge commitments followed by in-time deliveries towards Africa. The use of the media as a public diplomacy tool is important and must be handled carefully so as not to create any side impressions being over- publicized.

The third step relates to the comprehensive policy package that involves synergized efforts of various Government institutions, supported by business sectors and other stakeholders. At the moment, Africa is regarded as a potential non-traditional market, which in turn requires the Government of Indonesia to come up with new approaches and concerted efforts. Meanwhile, imports from Africa are mainly raw materials which are mainly fuels as well as primary and semi-processed raw materials for industry.

In regards to investment, there is not much investment flow from mainland African countries to record, with the exception of capital inflows from Mauritius to Indonesia which accounted for USD 0. So far, only Nigeria has accounted for several Indonesian investments with 11 companies engaged in different sectors, mostly consumer products.

Nowadays, the diplomacy is carried out in several layers, namely bilateral, multilateral and inter-regional. The NAASP promotes economic cooperation, which aimed at closer relations of business sectors and governmental facilitation to enhance economic ties through activities of trade, investment, tourism and service.

As such, this research was carried out through several field studies in Africa. In order to ease the comprehension of readers on the subject matters discussed, this book been organized as follows: The purpose of this arrangement is to give direct access for the readers to the very core of the research, namely the findings.

If readers are interested to go deeper into the background and analysis of the findings, they are welcome to examine the subsequent chapters in the body of the text.

This section provides readers with background information surrounding the proceedings of the research. This chapter is an important base in the discussion to follow, namely the Concluding Essay.

Bank Indonesia, in its Economic Report of Indonesia, stated that its economic growth has reached 6. The resilience was mainly the result of the tight and prudent policies implemented by the Government, which kept the economic fundamentals and macroeconomic stability strong enough to hold out against external pressures from the global financial system.

Besides that, Indonesia has a demographic structure which weighs heavily in favor of the productive age groups and a growing number of middle class. For the year , the economy is forecasted to grow by 6. This number would be the second highest among G member countries after China. The growth will be driven mainly by the domestic economy, with investment playing an expanding role.

Figure 2: Figure 3: Nevertheless, some measures must still be pursued in order to ease up the impact of the commodity prices downfall.

Business has developed and it is safe enough to do business in Indonesia because its debts, government or private, are considered low risk. In the long term, trust will surely grow, and investors are welcome to shift their short term investment instruments into long term investment instruments or Foregin Direct Investments FDIs.

As far as its trade relations are concerned, Indonesia continues to gain surplus. As the trade value reached USD billion in , or 1. However, accumulatively, Indonesia still gained a USD This decrease was experienced by all sectors, except the industrial sector, which increased by 0. The oil and gas sector also experienced some downturn. The table below shows the value of exports during the last quarter of , which continued to slow down to the first two months of due to the impact of the fluctuation of commodity prices and the global crises.

Table 1: Thus, Indonesia attracted a foreign investment flow that grew by The flow, which stood at USD The table below shows the level of foreign investment in Indonesia based on the countries of origin in Figure 5: Enhancing domestic competitiveness through: Improving the effectiveness of trade control and trade infrastructures through: Thanks to its strong oil and gas revenue, Algeria possesses a foreign currency reserve of USD billion. As a comparison, Indonesia has a foreign currency reserve of USD billion, enough to pay up to 6.

With an economy dominated by exports of commodities, particularly oil and gas, Algeria is keen to diversify its economy. In recent years, the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. This restriction is carried out in a selective manner, as the country, since the period of the bloody struggle for its freedom from France, has always regardedits independence in a relatively elevated manner.

This is why Western involvement in the Algerian economy has always been kept at bay, as Algeria has always been indifferent towards foreign products and investments. The imbalanced economic structure in regards to the exports of commodities and the imports of manufactured products has alarmed the Algerian Government, and as a result, it has reassessed its economic policy, even to the point of back-tracking from its commitment to a market economy.


Algeria announced a series of measures that will give preferential treatment to domestic firms over their foreign rivals.

The national tender process is only accessible for foreign firms if no Algerian firms are capable to do the project. With a market of almost 36 million people, a GDP per capitaof USD 7,, and an economy which highly depends on imports, Indonesian manufactured products have a great chance to enter the Algerian market.

Future investments to enhance domestic manufacturing capacity will surely take time, amid the relatively restrictive investment sector. Bilaterally speaking, a preferential trade agreement between Indonesia and Algeria will surely pave the way towards a larger trade volume between the two countries. This market potential represents an opportunity wide open for Indonesia, given the fact that the multilateral avenue, which Algeria has taken through its application for accession to the WTO, is still under negotiation.

So far, the negotiation has taken 25 years since its formal application in Therefore, with a less competitive and rather complementary bilateral trade structure, Indonesia should use its manufactured products to balance its trade with Algeria.

From an investment point of view, Indonesia has for the last 5 years managed to accumulate knowledge on doing business with Algerians, as PT. Along with this, WIKA gains good reputation for its quality.

This experience and reputation made up a strong foundation for the presence of Indonesian companies in Algeria, which in turn will ease their process of forming joint ventures with local partners.

Formats and Editions of Dialog dengan jin Muslim : pengalaman spiritual []

Through these joint ventures, the companies will then be able to benefit from the preferential treatment as local firms. This is conducted by focusing on three 3 main strategies, among others7: The enhancement of market diversification: The diversification and enhancement of product qualities: The enhancement of trade facilitation Furthermore, the Government has set the following targets for The share of non-traditional market destinations is still relatively low, which indicates that there are still a lot of potentials and wide opportunities.

CPO, fatty acid for industry, and chillers Source: Figure 8: Ministry of Trade The picture also shows that the mining sector continued to increase by 4. Apart from its market diversification strategy, Indonesia also focuses on the utilization of trade agreements, both bilateral and regional.

On a closer look, the economic growth in the sub-regions of Africa also show some interesting figures: Eastern Africa has grown by 6. Malawi 8. It is also interesting to note that the coastal areas of Africa have grown by an average of 6. In fact, this growth has started in , in which the average growth of Africa had steadily increased from 2. With their size and influence throughout the sub-region, it is important to closely watch the development and regional role of these countries.

Nigeria14 Nigeria stands as the largest African country in terms of population, with million people sharing Nigerian citizenship. From another economic point of view, in its square km of land, Nigeria is endowed with various natural resources, a predominantly large reserve of oil and gas, as well as other minerals and extensive arable land.

In Growing Africa, Where is Indonesia? Economic Potential and Profile In addition to its economic posture, Nigeria is also among the medium to high economic top growers in the world.

The country recorded an average of 6. It does, however, come with some challenges. Africa has the fastest growing population, and Nigeria is in the front line of it with around But to put it in a positive view, Nigeria has a young and growing population, thus presenting traders and investors with a large and growing consumer market. Figure 9: World Trade Organization WTO , trade profile Nevertheless, based on the interviews with several Nigerian scholars and economic experts, it could be assumed that the economic challenges are also derived from the poor infrastructure and institutions as well as the massive practices of corruption that has lead to poor policies.

As a consequence, there was a de- industrialization process in Nigeria, which made the imports of consumer goods the largest component of its foreign trade structure ever since. Realizing the flaws of its economic development policy in the past, the Nigerian Government is currently striving to diversify its economy with the manufacturing sector backed by a sound agricultural sector.

Regardless of the current economic situation, Nigeria has successfully stabilized its national politics. Nigeria, therefore, could become the gateway to enter the West African market. In the end, it would also encourage openness and the political will needed to enhance international economic relations beyond the region. In relation to that, Nigeria has also looked to other non-traditional economic partners, such as China, India, and other emerging economies.

Why Nigeria Matters to Indonesia? Thanks to the similar characteristics that they both have, Indonesia and Nigeria see each other as a new or non-traditional market waiting to be harnessed.

Both countries have huge potentials, and in fact have been starting to build a strong economic relationship through tens of thousand of their businessmen even before the governments have agreed to re-evaluate their mind-sets towards each other. In Nigeria, there are already at least 20 to 30 Indonesian companies operating, ranging from food processing, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical companies. Figure Indonesia - Nigeria Bilateral Trade Source: These initial processes were further developed into business relationships.

Rampant corruption and extortion in Nigeria hampers the efforts of Nigerian entrepreneurs to develop their business relations with Indonesia, particularly when it comes to enhancing investment cooperation in the country. One key point that could be derived from this meeting was the commitment from the Government of Nigeria that Nigeria is open to trade and investment for Indonesian businessmen.

It was also suggested that based on the experience with other foreign parties, a strategy to penetrate the Nigerian market can be done, among others, by setting up a legal umbrella to protect the parties involved in the bilateral trade, fostering close cooperation between the Chambers of Commerce of both countries, opening trade offices in both countries, conducting trade missions, and exchanging visits at regular intervals.

The team reaffirmed that despite the challenges in a number of its trade and investment sectors, Nigeria still presents itself as a golden opportunity for foreign investments. Please turn JavaScript on and reload the page. Other equally important points that were raised during the meeting relate to matters regarding the monitoring of trade, investment, and technical cooperation in Nigeria. As the second largest economy in Africa, Nigeria is the proper gateway to enter the West African market.

The presence of a number of obstacles in trade and investment in Nigeria did not dampen the interests of Indonesian businessmen to continue investing in Nigeria, especially given Nigeria's huge market potential, its relatively mild competition level, its abundant natural and human resources, as well as the opportunities presented by Nigeria as the stepping stone for a broader market in Western Africa and Africa as a whole.

Therefore, Indonesia should put forward a different approach by optimizing, for example, the technical cooperation that has been designed to create "distribution agents" of Indonesian products in Nigeria.

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It is unnecessary for Indonesian entrepreneurs to fear competition with Chinese products in the Nigerian market, due to the fact that Indonesian products are well known for their quality.

The preference on Chinese products in Nigeria is mainly due to the lack of other competing products as alternatives for the local consumers.

It is, therefore, logical to expect that Indonesian products will be able to compete with Chinese-manufactured products existing in the market. The presence of the economic influence from emerging economies such as China, India and Turkey is distinctively apparent in a number of infrastructure projects in Nigeria. However, the lack of infrastructure, especially road and highway, can be regarded as a great opportunity for Indonesian construction companies, such as WIKA, to mastermind a number of highway development projects in Nigeria.

Given its geographical location at the centre of the east coast of Africa, Kenya possesses a strategic location in the region.Socio-economic problems such as high unemployment, uneven income distribution, and access to education as well as health services that benefits the people would need to be addressedin order to alleviate poverty and improve living standards. China made proposals to launch the China- Africa Science and Technology Partnership Plan; to carry out joint research and demonstration projects; to invite African post-doctoral students to conduct scientific research in China; and to support them when they return to their home countries.

My friend Agil Alaydrus told me in Jeddah that it happened a man from Indonesia tried in Mecca to call the spirit of the Prophet through the jaylangkung.

Some of the potential service sectors which are yet to be developed are education, health and other sectors which require skilled labour. Furthermore, Egypt is experiencing a quite severe political-economic turbulence, which also gave more contraction to the economy. When Abu Hurayrah told the incident to the Prophet, he confirmed that Allah will protect us from Satan the devil if we read it before going to sleep. Despite the encouraging facts mentioned above, the EAC also faces a few serious challenges, such as: Local Community Land compensation and the share of equity are two aspects related to the local community that Chinese companies are to promote.

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