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A nevertheless considered to be abnormal. B not abnormal because abnormality requires distress. C doing something illegal, not abnormal. D no longer considered abnormal but were considered abnormal in the past.

Page 1 Full file at https: An individual has a 9-to-5 job. However, this person seldom gets up early enough to be at work on time and expresses great distress over this behavior.

This individual's behavior would be considered abnormal because it is: A disturbed. B deviant. C dysfunctional. D dangerous. Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively? A distress B deviance C dysfunction D danger to self or others Which person would NOT be considered abnormal, despite the fact that the person's behavior is dysfunctional? A someone who is too confused to drive safely B someone who parties so much that he or she cannot go to class C someone who goes on a hunger strike to protest social injustice D someone who cannot stay alone for even one night A person who is suicidal and can see no reason for living BEST fits which definition of abnormality?

A deviance B distress C danger D dysfunction A Secret Service agent steps in front of the president of the United States, prepared to be killed or injured if the president's safety is threatened.

Psychologically speaking, the Secret Service agent's behavior is: A distressing and psychologically abnormal. B functional and not psychologically abnormal. C dysfunctional and psychologically abnormal. D dangerous but not psychologically abnormal.

Despite popular misconceptions, most people with psychological problems are not: A dysfunctional. B dangerous. C distressing.

D deviant. According to Thomas Szasz's views, the deviations that some call mental illness are really: A mental illnesses. B problems in living. C caused by one's early childhood experiences. D eccentric behaviors with a biological cause. A researcher spends 15 or more hours per day conducting experiments or doing library reading and records observations on color-coded index cards. This person lives alone in the country but doesn't interfere with others' lives. The BEST description of the researcher's behavior is that it is: A eccentric.

B abnormal. C dangerous. D dysfunctional. College students who drink so much that it interferes with their lives, health, and academic careers are often not diagnosed as engaging in abnormal behavior because: A the behavior is not illegal.

B they are just considered eccentric. C they are not harming anyone but themselves. D drinking is considered part of the college subculture.

A allows us to create diagnoses that are clear-cut and not debatable. B allows us to eliminate those who are merely eccentric.

C allows us to include those who experience no distress. D is still often vague and subjective. Page 2 Full file at https: Lady Gaga and other eccentrics are usually not considered to be experiencing a mental illness because: A they are not deviant. B they freely choose and enjoy their behavior.

C they are only dangerous to others, not to themselves. D while they are distressed by their behavior, others are not. Which is NOT a characteristic of eccentric individuals noted by researchers in the field?

A being a poor speller B having a diagnosable mental illness C being creative D a mischievous sense of humor Studies show that eccentric individuals are more likely than those with mental disorders to say: A I feel like my behavior has been thrust on me. B I'm different and I like it. C I am in a lot of pain and I suffer a great deal. A series of contacts B healer C third-party payer D sufferer who seeks relief One who sees abnormality as a problem in living usually refers to those seeking help with problems in living as: A pupils.

B patients.

C trainees. D clients. The use of exorcism in early societies suggests a belief that abnormal behavior was caused by: A germs. B poisons. C evil spirits. D psychological trauma. A exorcism. B shaman. C couvade.

D trephination. A person being treated by a shaman would MOST likely be undergoing: A psychoanalysis. B gender-sensitive therapy. C community-based treatment. D an exorcism. Hippocrates believed that treatment for mental disorders should involve: A releasing evil spirits trapped in the brain. B bringing the four body humors back into balance. C punishing the body for its sins. D bloodletting.

Hippocrates's contribution to the development of understanding mental illness was the view that such conditions were the result of: A stress. B natural, physical causes. C brain pathology. D spiritual deviations. Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was: A water. B lymph gland fluid. C phlegm. D cerebrospinal fluid. Page 3 Full file at https: Hippocrates attempted to treat mental disorders by: A hypnotizing patients.

B chaining patients to walls. C correcting underlying physical pathology. D encouraging patients to speak about past traumas. A mass madness. B melancholia. C trephination. D eco-terrorism. A the moral model B the medical model C the psychogenic model D the demonology model A The power of the clergy increased greatly.

B The Church rejected scientific forms of investigation. C The Church controlled education.

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D The culture rejected religious beliefs. A tarantism B lycanthropy C exorcism D St. Vitus' dance Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of: B mass madness. C physical pathology causing mental illness. D disorders that were treated with trephination. Vitus' dance, characterized by people suddenly going into convulsions, jumping around, and dancing, was also known as: A lycanthropy.

C phlegmatism. D tarantism. A physicians. B nobility. C peasants. D clergy.

The individual considered to be the founder of the modern study of psychopathology is: A Hippocrates. B Johann Weyer. C Dorothea Dix. D Emil Kraepelin. Johann Weyer, considered to be the founder of the modern study of psychopathology, was a physician in the: A s. B s. C s. D s. A Bethlehem Hospital in London. B Gheel, Belgium. D Athens, Greece.

Page 4 Full file at https: In the early asylums, treatment for mental illness began with the intention to provide: A harsh treatment. B care and treatment. C religious therapies. D psychogenic therapy. In many areas in the s, asylums such as Bethlehem Hospital in London became: A shrines.

B tourist attractions. C sheltered workshops. D centers of moral treatment. What is the distinction of Bethlehem Hospital, founded in London in ? B It was the first asylum founded by Hippocrates.

D It was the first asylum where the moral treatment of patients was practiced. Who brought the reforms of moral therapy to northern England? The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that: A mental problems had a biological basis.

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B demonology was a cause of mental illness. C mental illness should be treated humanely and with respect. D the cause of mental illness was immoral behavior. Who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the United States? The American schoolteacher who lobbied state legislatures for laws to mandate humane treatment of people with mental disorders was: A William Tuke.

B Dorothea Dix. C Clifford Beers. D Benjamin Rush. Which is a component of the legacy of Dorothea Dix? A deinstitutionalization B state hospitals C federal prisons D privatization of mental hospitals Which was NOT a factor in the decline in the use of moral treatment and the rise in the use of custodial care in mental hospitals at the end of the twentieth century?

A the total lack of success of moral treatment B too many hospitals, resulting in funding and staffing shortages C prejudice against poor, immigrant patients in hospitals D lack of public and private funding for hospitals A prejudice against those with mental disorders decreased. B fewer and fewer immigrants were being sent to mental hospitals. C all patients needing treatment had to be helped.

D hospitals became underfunded and overcrowded. One factor that contributed to the decline of moral therapy was: A prejudice against people with mental disorders. B it was shown to be completely ineffective. C too few patients were hospitalized. D psychogenic drugs replaced it. Page 5 Full file at https: Hippocrates's model of mental illness can be described as: A psychiatric. B somatogenic. C psychogenic. D supernatural. The fact that some people in the advanced stages of AIDS experience neurological damage that results in psychological abnormality supports what type of perspective about abnormal psychological functioning?

A somatogenic B psychogenic C moral D deterministic The discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis was made by: A Benjamin Rush. B Emil Kraepelin. The finding that syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea that: A mental patients should be deinstitutionalized. B organic factors can cause mental illness. D physicians should be the ones treating mental illnesses.

For those who hold the somatogenic view of mental illness, the best treatment setting for those with mental disorders would be a: A community center.

B spa and retreat center. C counselor's office. D hospital.

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A Hypnotism has helped people give up smoking. B Alcoholism tends to run in families. C People with Lyme disease often have psychological symptoms. D Most people with depression are helped with medication. A somatogenic B psychoanalytic C cultural D managed care The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to have been MOST successful was the use of: A psychosurgery. B psychoanalysis. C various medications. D insulin shock therapy.

Which option is NOT associated with hypnotism? Friedrich Anton Mesmer became famous—or infamous—for his work with patients suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. His patients' disorders are termed: A somatogenic.

B hysterical. C phlegmatic. D bilious. Which perspective was supported by the discovery that the symptoms of hysteria e. A psychogenic B somatogenic C demonological D moral A psychogenic B somatogenic C demonological D sociocultural The early psychogenic treatment that was studied by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was: A prayer. B bleeding. C hypnotism. D trephining. Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of: A moral therapy. C psychogenic therapy.

D all psychological therapy. A moral B outpatient C behavioral D somatogenic Psychoanalysis, as Freud developed it, was a form of what we now would call: A mesmerism.

B outpatient therapy. C community psychology. D Kraepelinism. Which patient would be MOST likely to benefit from psychoanalytic treatment? A a person who needs to make profound behavioral changes very quickly B a person who has difficulty expressing ideas and feelings verbally C someone who is insightful and thinks clearly D someone who is severely disturbed and in a mental hospital Surveys have found that 43 percent of people today believe that mental illness is caused by: A sinful behavior.

B lack of willpower. C lack of self-discipline. D something people bring on themselves. A medicated with psychotropic drugs B hospitalized in mental institutions C homeless or in prison D treated in outpatient facilities A antipsychotic. B antidepressant. C antibiotic. D antianxiety. Which BEST reflects the impact of deinstitutionalization? A Fine; most people with severe disturbances are receiving treatment.

B Not so well; many people with severe disturbances are in jail or on the street. C Better than hospitalization; at least care is consistent and there is no shuttling back and forth through different levels of care. D Well; communities have been able to pick up the care of those with severe disturbances and provide effective treatment for most all of them.

Page 7 Full file at https: The general term for this type of drug is: A psychogenic. C psychotropic. D somatotropic. Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed: A antidepressant.

B antianxiety. C mood stabilizers D antipsychotic. A psychedelics B antineurotics C psychotropics D psychophysiologicals Dave is confused and usually thinks that he is an ancient king. A stimulant B antianxiety C antipsychotic D antidepressant Jena is experiencing sadness, lack of energy, and low self-worth.

The condition is chronic and severe. The number of patients hospitalized in mental hospitals in the United States today is MOST similar to the number hospitalized in: A B C D One cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the: A policy of deinstitutionalization.

B use of psychotropic medication. C decrease in the use of private psychotherapy. D move to the community mental health approach. A in a mental hospital. B on the street or in jail. C receiving drug counseling in a shelter. D in private therapy paid for by the state. The approach to therapy for mental illness in which a person directly pays a psychotherapist for services is called: A sociological therapy.

B the medical approach. C private psychotherapy. D the community mental health approach. Which statement BEST reflects the current care for people with less severe disturbances? A Many are treated by generalists who specialize in a number of different types of disorders. B Private insurance companies are likely to cover outpatient treatment. Partly because of this emphasis in mental health, many suffering from mental health disorders are currently homeless or incarcerated.

A the use of psychotropic medications B psychoanalysis C somatogenic perspective D community mental health approach Suicide prevention, substance abuse treatment, and eating disorder clinics are MOST similar to which kind of market? A Whole Foods, a large market that offers many different types of food B Sweet Cupcakes, a store that specializes in only one type of food C Corner Market, a Mom-and-Pop store that carries rather old-fashioned food D New York Deli, a high-end market that serves only the wealthy A significant change in the type of care offered now compared to the time Freud was practicing is that: A fewer patients are suffering from anxiety and depression.

B fewer patients receive outpatient treatment. Efforts to address the needs of children who are at risk for developing mental disorders babies of teenage mothers, children of those with severe mental disorders are categorized as: A positive psychology. C eco-anxiety treatment. D prevention. Which pair of words BEST describes the current emphasis in mental health? A prevention and positive psychology B promotion and public psychology C perfection and primary psychology D people and professional psychology If a university had a first-year program designed to ease the transition from high school to college and to decrease the dropout rates, that program would have elements MOST similar to: A prevention programs.

B positive psychology programs. C deinstitutionalization programs. D outpatient therapy. Efforts to help people develop personally meaningful activities and healthy relationships are a part of: A eco-anxiety treatment. B a somatogenic approach to treatment. C the clinical practice of positive psychology. D an eccentric's level of creativity. A psychologist focuses on optimism, wisdom, happiness, and interpersonal skills. The psychologist is MOST likely: A a psychoanalyst. B a positive psychologist.

C a community mental health worker. D a rehabilitation specialist. If a university had a program designed to help students achieve their full potential, physically, educationally, and spiritually, that program would have elements MOST similar to: A mental health prevention programs.

Immigration trends and differences in birthrates among minority groups in the United States have caused psychological treatment to become more: A hospital focused. B multicultural. C positive. D dependent on the use of medications. Page 9 Full file at https: A greater sensitivity to cultural issues in therapy. B a focus on the uniqueness of the issues faced.

C a focus on healthy feelings and actions rather than on problems. D sensitivity to the traditions of that person's particular culture. Which feature is NOT common in managed care programs? A limited pool of practitioners for patients to choose from B preapproval for treatment by the insurance company C ongoing reviews and assessments D patient choice in number of therapy sessions Parity laws for insurance coverage of mental health treatment mandate that: A physicians and psychologists must have the same level of education.

B coverage for mental and physical problems must be reimbursed equally. C the number of sessions allowed for treatment of mental and physical treatment must be equal. D patients must be allowed to choose the therapist they want for treatment. A physician who has specialized treatment in mental health issues is called a: A psychiatrist. B clinical psychologist.

C psychodiagnostician. D psychoanalyst. After medical school, a psychiatrist receives three to four years of training in the treatment of abnormal mental functioning; this training is called a n: A residency. B internship.

C practicum. D community mental health tour. One major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists: A went to medical school. B must work in a medical setting. C are allowed to do psychotherapy. D have more training in mental illness. Which statement is true about the participation of women in the mental health professions?

A There are more women in social work than in counseling professions. B Women are least often found in medicine and most often found in social work.

C The profession with the highest percentage of women is counseling. D The majority of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are men. The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is: A psychiatry. B social work. C psychology. D counseling. A person who works in a mental hospital analyzing various treatment protocols to see how multicultural factors impact success rates is MOST likely a: A clinical researcher.

C psychiatrist. D psychiatric social worker. A person who is hard at work trying to discover which combination of environmental and genetic factors produces schizophrenia is MOST likely a: B psychiatric social worker. C family therapist. D counseling psychologist. A general understanding of the underlying nature, causes, and treatments of abnormal behavior is called: A theoretical.

B nomothetic. C idiographic. D correlational. Page 10 Full file at https: As opposed to clinical practitioners, who search for individualistic understanding of human behavior, clinical researchers search for general truths about abnormality. The approach of clinical researchers is: A idiosyncratic. B nomosynthetic. D nomothetic. If you were using the scientific method to conduct research in abnormal psychology, you would be seeking: A an idiographic understanding.

B to advance conventional wisdom. C a nomothetic understanding. D to change current graduate training. Which is NOT considered a research method? A the case study B a correlation C an experiment D a treatment plan for an individual The idea that children from single-parent families show more depression than those from two-parent families is a n: A variable.

B experiment. C correlation. D hypothesis. A research finding. B hypothesis. C example of a case study. D research conclusion. A psychologist does a study of an individual involving a history, tests, and interviews of associates. A clear picture is constructed of this individual so her behavior is better understood. This study is a n: A hypothesis. B case study. C experimental study. D correlation. Which is an example of a case study?

A a study involving use of a control group B a long-term study of a single clinical client C a study of all the cases of a disorder in a community D the creation of a disorder in a group of lab rats Case studies are useful for: A forming general laws of behavior. B studying unusual problems. C conducting scientific experiments. D eliminating observer bias. The case study MOST likely to be helpful in the study of abnormality would be one that included a well-tested, research- supported form of therapy used to treat a n: A common disorder.

B depression. C substance abuse. D uncommon disorder. Which is NOT a way that case studies are useful?

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A studying unusual problems B learning a great deal about a particular patient C suggesting new areas for further study D determining general laws of behavior The major ethical concern with research on Facebook users is: A there are not enough Facebook users to make the research worthwhile.

B Facebook users don't always know they are being studied. C research projects have not been approved by universities where they are conducted. D it is unethical to observe public behavior. Page 11 Full file at https: A researcher is considering whether to gather online data from Facebook users without informing the users that their data are being used.

In terms of research ethics, which question is the MOST relevant? B Are Facebook users a random sample of whatever population is being studied? C Will Facebook users be able to sue if they think their rights are being violated?

D Will the potential benefits of the research outweigh the potential risks to Facebook users? A positive. B negative. C curvilinear. D nonexistent. A no correlation at all. B a causal relationship. C a positive correlation. D a negative correlation. If stress levels and physical health are negatively correlated, the researcher can conclude that: A stress causes people to have poor health. B as stress increases, health decreases. C poor health causes people to experience stress.

D mental illness causes both stress and poor health. Correlation coefficients indicate: A the magnitude and direction of the relationship between variables. B the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. C the internal and external validity between variables. D the significance and variability between variables. Which correlation coefficient is of the highest magnitude?

Which correlation coefficient represents the weakest relationship? If the correlation between severity of depression and age is —0. A older people have more severe depression. B older people have less severe depression. C younger people have almost no depression. D there is no consistent relationship between age and severity of depression.

Which statement is true of the correlation coefficient? A It ranges from 0. B It ranges from —1. C It ranges from 0. D It ranges from —1. I have to take a test in two minutes. I need help remembering what kind of correlation coefficient shows a weak relationship between two variables. A a correlation coefficient that is statistically significant B a correlation coefficient close to minus one —1 C a correlation coefficient close to zero 0 D a correlation coefficient that doesn't prove a causal relationship between the variables Page 12 Full file at https: A researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of depression.

Therefore, the researcher may be confident that: A life stress causes symptoms of depression. B symptoms of depression cause life stress. C something else causes stress and depression. D life stress and depression are related. Which is NOT a merit of the correlational method?

A It can be replicated. B It can be analyzed statistically. C Its results provide general information. D It provides individual information. Which results are MOST likely from an epidemiological study?

A The rate of suicide is higher in Ireland than in the United States. B Autism is caused by influenza vaccinations. C Child abuse is often found in the backgrounds of those with multiple personalities.

D Alcoholism runs in families. The form of correlational research that seeks to find how many new cases of a disorder occur in a group in a given time period is termed: A longitudinal incidence. B longitudinal prevalence.

C epidemiological incidence. D epidemiological prevalence. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in older men seen at a clinic tells you the: A total number of older men with sexual dysfunction at the clinic. B risk of a man developing sexual dysfunction. C number of new cases of sexual dysfunction over a period of time. D rate of sexual dysfunction in the community. A longitudinal B experimental C developmental D epidemiological The number of new cases of a disorder in a population that emerge in a particular time interval is called the: A incidence.

B prevalence. D epidemiology. There were 10 new cases of schizophrenia in a small town in the Midwest this week. A risk B incidence C prevalence D epidemiology The total number of cases of a disorder in the population is called the: A risk.

B incidence. C prevalence.

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D rate of occurrence. A always be the same as B always be higher than C always be the same or higher than D always be lower than A case study B longitudinal C analogue D epidemiological If researchers studied Vietnam veterans for 30 years after the veterans' return from Vietnam, meeting with those veterans every two years to collect data, the study would be: He discovered that Van Buren was the only U.

Holloway is a lifelong devotee of St. Francis of Assisi, and frequently dresses in the habit of a Franciscan monk. But how can we separate a psychologically healthy person who has unusual habits from a person whose oddness is a symptom of psychopathology?

For years, little research was done on eccentrics, but some recent studies and Eccentricity takes a break Gene Pool, a year-old carpenter, journeys repeatedly around New York City wearing an outfit made of empty cans. The reason? To make a statement about the need for recycling and to be noticed. Here he rests for a while on a city park bench. What Is Treatment? Once clinicians decide that a person is indeed suffering from some form of psychological abnormality, they seek to treat it.

For clinical scientists, the problem is closely related to defining abnormality. Consider the case of Bill: February: He cannot leave the house; Bill knows that for a fact. Home is the only place where he feels safe—safe from humiliation, danger, even ruin.

If he were to go to work, his co-workers would somehow reveal their contempt for him. If he were to go shopping at the store, before long everyone would be staring at him. He dare not even go for a walk alone in the woods—his heart would probably start racing again, bringing him to his knees and leaving him breathless, incoherent, and unable to get home.

Also called therapy. The gang meets for Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present upon them and usually causes them suffering, eccentricity is chosen freely and provides pleasure. Similarly, the thought processes of eccentrics are not severely disrupted, and they do not leave the person dysfunctional. In fact, Weeks found that eccentrics actually had fewer emotional problems than the general population.

The eccentrics in his study also seemed physically healthier than others, visiting a doctor only once every eight years on average. Weeks concludes that most eccentrics, despite their deviant behavior— perhaps even because of it—are happy, well-adjusted, and joyful people.

The first 5 are the most definitive, but possessing any 10 may qualify a person as an eccentric. They go to movies, restaurants, and shows together. Bill looks forward to work each day and his one-on-one dealings with customers.

He is enjoying life and basking in the glow of his many activities and relationships. Yet most of his symptoms had disappeared by July. Friends and family members may have offered support or advice. A new job or vacation may have lifted his spirits.

Perhaps he changed his diet or started to exercise. Any or all of these things may have been useful to Bill, but they could not be considered treatment, or therapy. Those terms are usually reserved for special, systematic procedures that are designed to help people overcome their psychological difficulties. According to the clinical theorist Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have three essential features: 1. A sufferer who seeks relief from the healer.

A trained, socially accepted healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group. He also tried to teach his dog how to talk. Lawrence enjoyed removing his clothes and climbing mulberry trees. Frank, , pp. They are not in agreement as to what constitutes a successful outcome of their work. They cannot agree as to what constitutes a failure. It seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided.

Others see abnormality as a problem in living and therapists as teachers of more functional behavior and thought. Despite their differences, most clinicians do agree that large numbers of people need therapy of one kind or another.

In any given year as many as 30 percent of the adults and 20 percent of the children and adolescents in the United States display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment Narrow et al. Add to these figures as many as , suicide attempts, , rapes, and 3 million cases of child abuse each year, and it becomes apparent that abnormal psychological functioning is a pervasive problem in this country.

The numbers and rates in other countries are similarly high. Furthermore, most people go through periods of extreme tension, demoralization, or other forms of psychological discomfort in their lives and at such times experience at least some of the distress associated with psychological disorders. It is tempting to conclude that unique characteristics of the modern world are responsible for these numerous emotional problems—perhaps rapid technological change, the growing threats of terrorism, or a decline in religious, family, or other support systems Schumaker, Although the special pressures of modern life probably do contribute to psychological dysfunctioning, they are hardly its primary cause.

Historical records demonstrate that every society, past and present, has witnessed psychological abnormality. Perhaps, then, the proper place to begin our examination of abnormal behavior and treatment is in the past. As we look back, we can see how each society has struggled to understand and treat psychological problems, and we can observe that many present-day ideas and treatments have roots in the past.

A look backward makes it clear that progress in the understanding and treatment of mental disorders has hardly been a steady movement forward. In fact, many of the inadequacies and controversies that mark the clinical field today parallel those of the past.

At the same time, looking back can help us to appreciate the significance of recent breakthroughs and the importance of the journey that lies ahead. Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present 9 Most of our knowledge of prehistoric societies has been acquired indirectly and is based on inferences made from archaeological discoveries. Any conclusions are at best tentative and are always subject to revision in the face of new discoveries. Thus our knowledge of how ancient societies viewed and treated people with mental disturbances is limited.

Most historians believe that prehistoric societies regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits. These early societies apparently explained all phenomena as resulting from the actions of magical, sometimes sinister beings who controlled the world. In particular, they viewed the human body and mind as a battleground between external forces of good and evil. This supernatural view of abnormality may have begun as far back as the Stone Age, a half-million years ago.

Some skulls from that period recovered in Europe and South America show evidence of an operation called trephination, in which a stone instrument, or trephine, was used to cut away a circular section of the skull. Historians surmise that this operation was performed as a treatment for severe abnormal behavior—either hallucinations, in which people saw or heard things not actually present, or melancholia, characterized by extreme sadness and immobility.

The purpose of opening the skull was to release the evil spirits that were supposedly causing the problem Selling, In recent decades, some historians have questioned whether Stone Age people actually believed that evil spirits caused abnormal behavior.

Either way, later societies clearly did attribute abnormal behavior to possession by demons. Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew writings all account for psychological deviance this way.

The Bible, for example, describes how an evil spirit from the Lord affected King Saul and how David feigned madness in order to convince his enemies that he was visited by divine forces. The treatment for abnormality in these early societies was often exorcism. A shaman, or priest, might recite prayers, plead with the evil spirits, insult them, perform magic, make loud noises, or have the person drink bitter potions. If these techniques failed, the shaman performed a more extreme form of exorcism, such as whipping or starving the person.

Heading the list were melancholia, a condition marked by unshakable sadness; mania, a state of euphoria and frenzied activity; dementia, a general intellectual decline; hysteria, the presence of a physical ailment with no apparent physical cause; delusions, blatantly false beliefs; and hallucinations, the experience of imagined sights or sounds as if they were real.

Although demonological interpretations of mental and physical illness were still widespread, philosophers and physicians began to offer alternative explanations during this period. Hippocrates — B. He saw abnormal behavior as a disease arising from internal physical problems. Specifically, he believed that some form of brain pathology was the culprit and that it resulted—like all other forms of disease, in his view—from an imbalance of four fluids, or humors, that flowed through the body: yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm.

An excess of yellow bile, for example, caused mania; an excess of black bile was the source of melancholia. To treat psychological dysfunctioning, Hippocrates sought to correct the underlying John W.

Verano Ancient Views and Treatments Expelling evil spirits The two holes in this skull recovered from ancient times indicate that the person underwent trephination, possibly for the purpose of releasing evil spirits and curing mental dysfunctioning.

Zentralbibliothek, Zurich chapter 1 Zentralbibliothek, Zurich 10 Humors in action Hippocrates believed that imbalances of the four humors affected personality. In these depictions of two of the humors, yellow bile left drives a husband to beat his wife, and black bile right leaves a man melancholic and sends him to bed.

He believed, for instance, that the excess of black bile underlying melancholia could be reduced by a quiet life, a vegetable diet, temperance, exercise, celibacy, and even bleeding. Fewer than 5 percent had medical degrees Whitaker, And with the decline of Rome, demonology enjoyed a strong resurgence, as a growing distrust of science spread throughout Europe.

From A. In those days the church rejected scientific forms of investigation, and it controlled all education. Religious beliefs, which were highly superstitious and demonological at this time, came to dominate all aspects of life.

Once again behavior was usually interpreted as a conflict between good and evil, God and the devil. Although some scientists and physicians still insisted on medical explanations and treatments, their views carried little weight in this atmosphere.

The Middle Ages were a time of great stress and anxiety, of war, urban uprisings, and plagues. People blamed the devil for these troubles and feared being possessed by him. The incidence of abnormal behavior apparently increased dramatically during this period. In addition, there were outbreaks of mass madness, in which large numbers of people apparently shared delusions and hallucinations.

In one such disorder, tarantism also known as St.

Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology

Some dressed oddly; others tore off their clothing. All were convinced that they had been bitten and possessed by a wolf spider, now called a tarantula, and they sought to cure their disorder by performing a dance called a tarantella.

In another form of mass madness, lycanthropy, people thought they were possessed by wolves or other animals. They acted wolflike and imagined that fur was growing all over their bodies. Stories of lycanthropes, more popularly known as werewolves, have been passed down to us and continue to fire the imagination of writers, moviemakers, and their audiences. Not surprisingly, some of the earlier demonological treatments for psychological abnormality reemerged during the Middle Ages.

Exorcisms were revived, and clergymen, who generally were in charge of treatment during this period, would plead, chant, or pray to the devil or evil spirit. If these techniques did not work, they had others to try, some indistinguishable from torture see Box 1—3. During biblical times, shamans, or priests, would often perform exorcisms on such people—reciting prayers or offering bitter-tasting drinks in order to coax evil spirits to leave the bodies of the troubled individuals.

Similarly, during the Middle Ages, clergymen would plead with or insult the devil who was thought to be residing in those people who behaved abnormally, recite prayers, administer holy water or bitter solutions, or even starve or stretch the bodies of the individuals in question.

But all that is a thing of the distant past, right? Well, not completely, it turns out. By the s exorcism had all but disappeared from Western culture Cuneo, Then in , the enormously popular book and movie The Exorcist spurred an onslaught of books and movies on demonic possession, and public interest in this kind of intervention increased dramatically. Since then, numerous evangelical ministers and charismatics have declared themselves exorcists and performed exorcisms on people with behavioral disturbances.

Typically, the exorcist blesses the person who is thought to be possessed, recites passages from the Bible, and commands the evil spirits to leave the body Fountain, Often a support group is present to pray for the person while he or she cries out and perhaps even thrashes on the floor, regurgitates, or flails out Cuneo, During the s, the techniques used by some contemporary exorcists Exorcism at the movies In the remarkably popular horror movie The Exorcist, an exorcist offers prayers and administers holy water to try to force the devil to leave the body of a troubled teenage girl.

In addition, a growing number of priests began to perform spiritual cleansing ceremonies not sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church. By the year , hundreds of exorcists, from evangelical ministers and charismatics to unsanctioned priests, were performing a wide variety of exorcisms in the United States Cuneo, In order to regulate this growing field, both within and outside the church, and to ensure more acceptable procedures, the Roman Catholic Church in the United States has become more actively involved in exorcisms during the past decade.

The number of full-time exorcists formally appointed by the church increased from 1 in to 10 in Fountain, Over the past several years, these officials have investigated and evaluated hundreds of cases in which individuals or their relatives or priests have sought exorcisms, determining in each case whether exorcism is appropriate.

In the church issued a revised Catholic rite of exorcism for the first time since , establishing rules to be followed in making such decisions and in the exorcisms themselves. For example, a church exorcism can take place only after the church-approved exorcist consults with physicians to rule out mental or physical disorders. Also, church exorcisms must be approved by a bishop.

As a result of such rules and procedures, only a small number of potential cases actually result in church-approved exorcisms Fountain, Even a small number of exorcisms, however, is excessive in the eyes of many mental health professionals. They argue that one can never totally rule out mental and physical causes in cases of abnormal functioning and that exorcisms—even those that are carefully selected and conducted—divert attention from more accurate explanations of abnormal behavior and more appropriate interventions.

Given its long history and deep roots, this debate is not likely to be settled in the near future. Towns throughout Europe grew into cities, and municipal authorities gained more power and took over nonreligious activities. Among their other responsibilities, they began to run hospitals and direct the care of people suffering from mental disorders.

Medical views of abnormality gained favor once again. During these same years, many people with psychological disturbances received treatment in medical hospitals. Bewitched or bewildered? Tens of thousands of people, mostly women, were thought to have made a pact with the devil. The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums During the early part of the Renaissance, a period of flourishing cultural and scientific activity about — , demonological views of abnormality continued to decline.

The German physician Johann Weyer — , the first physician to specialize in mental illness, believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body.

He is now considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology. The care of people with mental disorders continued to improve in this atmosphere. In England such individuals might be kept at home while their families were aided financially by the local parish.

Across Europe religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders. The best known of these shrines was actually established centuries earlier at Gheel in Belgium, but beginning in the fifteenth century, people came to it from all over the world for psychic healing. Today patients are still welcome to live in foster homes in this town, interacting with other residents, until they recover.

Unfortunately, these improvements in care began to fade by the mid—sixteenth century. By then municipal authorities had discovered that private homes and community residences could house only a small percentage of those with severe mental disorders and that medical hospitals were too few and too small.

Increasingly, they converted hospitals and monasteries into asylums, institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness. These institutions were founded with every intention of providing good care. Once the asylums started to overflow, however, they became virtual prisons where patients were held in filthy conditions and treated with unspeakable cruelty. The first asylum had been founded in Muslim Spain in the early fifteenth century, but the idea did not gain full momentum until the s.

In this asylum patients bound in chains cried out for all to hear. During certain phases of Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present 13 The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment As approached, the treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again. In , during the French Revolution, Philippe Pinel — was named the chief physician there. He argued that the patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated with sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings.

He unchained them and allowed them to move freely about the hospital grounds, replaced the dark dungeons with sunny, well-ventilated rooms, and offered support and advice.

Patients who had been shut away for decades were now enjoying fresh air and sunlight and being treated with dignity. Many improved greatly over a short period of time and were released. Meanwhile an English Quaker named William Tuke — was bringing similar reforms to northern England.

In he founded the York Retreat, a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work Borthwick et al. The Spread of Moral Treatment The methods of Pinel and Tuke, called moral treatment because they emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques, caught on throughout Europe and the United States.

Patients with psychological problems were increasingly perceived as potentially productive human beings whose mental functioning had broken down under stress. They were considered deserving of individual care, including discussions of their problems, useful activities, work, companionship, and quiet. The person most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the United States was Benjamin Rush — , an eminent physician at Pennsylvania Hospital.The reason?

D dependent variable. In rural Pakistan, for example, many parents apply special makeup around the eyes of their young children, as their ancestors have done for centuries.

A longitudinal B double-blind C epidemiological D experimental You will receive in the pictures. B somatogenic. In he founded the York Retreat, a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work Borthwick et al.

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