The first volume of MEIN KAMPF was written while the author was . I now come to some references in the text which are frequently recurring and which may not. i. FOREWARD from Landsberg Am Lech, Fortress Prison. Volume One: A Reckoning. IN THE HOUSE OF MY PARENTS · YEARS OF STUDY AND SUFFERING. We turn to our decision to annotate the text. Mein Kampf is frequently a difficult book for the American reader to understand. Few Americans are, in the very.
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Mein Kampf. (My Struggle) .. library, I had come across various books of a military nature among them a Finally, a whole lifetime spent in the bitter struggle for. Mein Kampf is a autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work .. German officials had previously said they would limit public access to the text amid fears that its republication could stir neo-Nazi sentiment. Some. Mein Kampf in English (Mein Kampf in Englisch)Here is a download link for a PDF This version should be the same as that found in the text presented on this .
I went one step further and declared that if that was the case I would stop studying altogether.
The petty rancor and unassuaged disappointments of a resentment-filled life burn on every page, in ways one would think might be more demoralizing than inspiring to potential followers. I had set out with a pile of drawings, convinced that it would be child's play to pass the examination.
I was in the fair city for the second time, waiting with burning impatience, but also with confident self-assurance, for the result of my entrance examination. I was so convinced that I would be successful that when I received my rejection, it struck me as a bolt from the blue. Yet that is what happened.
When I presented myself to the rector, requesting an explanation for my non-acceptance at the Academy's school of painting, that gentleman assured me that the drawings I had submitted incontrovertibly showed my unfitness for painting.
And many similar passages of equally irrelevant self-pity follow. His description of his hunger while footloose in Vienna is pointillist.
The Masons play the same role for Mussolini that the Jews did for Hitler: To be sure, Hitler is writing at the bottom of the ascent and Mussolini at the top, but the temperamental difference is arresting nonetheless.
Hitler, Mein Kampf. A critical edition
Indeed, strangely, the "lesser" Fascist and extreme right-wing European figures of the period are closer to the idealized image of a national savior than Hitler even pretends to be. Corneliu Codreanu, in Romania, for instance—who was, hard to believe, an even more violent anti-Semite than Hitler—was a model of the charismatic national leader, providing a mystical religious turn as well.
Even Oswald Mosley, in England—for all that P.
Wodehouse nicely mocked him in his figure of Roderick Spode—had many of the traits of a genuinely popular, charismatic figure, worryingly so. He is a victim and a sufferer first and last—a poor soldier who is gassed, a failed artist who is desperately hungry and mocked by all.
The creepiness extends toward his fanatical fear of impurity—his obsession with syphilis is itself pathological—and his cult of strong bodies. Hitler in Mein Kampf repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd" referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the garment nearest to the body.
The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples.
In , the Tornister-Ausgabe, or Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.
A special edition was published in in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe. The book could also be downloadd as a two-volume set during Hitler's rule, and was available in soft cover and hardcover.
The soft cover edition contained the original cover as pictured at the top of this article. The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. Hitler's audience was so impressed by his first speech that party leader Anton Drexler reportedly shouted: "Man, he's a got a mouth we could use. He vituperated against Versailles and social democracy, and he called Jews bloodsuckers and Communists traitors.
And he soon took over the party, which had since been renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party, and began to plan an overthrow of the government. Inflation was reaching its climax and one kilo of bread cost billion marks. From his base in Munich, he aimed to conquer Germany and deal a death blow to the Weimar Republic. Logistically speaking, Hitler's coup, on the night of Nov. He had neither sufficient troops nor a strategy to seize power in Berlin.
During the final shootout between his followers -- many of them recruited from Munich beer halls -- and the police, a bullet missed him by a few centimeters and killed the man standing next to him. In the ensuing trial, Hitler was sentenced to a five-years prison term, which he was permitted to serve with a handful of supporters in Landsberg am Lech.
In the luxury prison, where the cellblock was furnished more like a middle-class apartment, inmate Hitler spent his days writing.
At first, his only goal was to settle scores with all those he held responsible for Germany's defeat in World War I. In reality, Hitler typed it himself. And to get himself into the mood, he even engaged in a bit of reenactment. He is imitating the sounds of shells and machine guns, and he is jumping wildly around the room, transported by his fantasy.
Fervant Supporter He frequently read passages from the developing book out loud to his fellow inmates. Publishers contacted him with offers. Affluent Hitler supporters from the Munich upper classes, including the wife of piano maker Carl Bechstein, sent him baskets of food.
Hitler could also count on the prison warden, who was a fervent supporter of his famous inmate.
What Hitler had intended as a settling of scores soon became an odd mixture of stylized autobiography and ideological platform, a blend of party history and propaganda. In the preface to the first volume, Hitler writes that he wanted to "clarify the goals of our movement" and confront the creation of legends about him, allegedly by the Jewish press.
The demagogue devoted many pages to the "magic power of the spoken word," which he argued was the only force capable of setting "in motion great historical avalanches of religious and political movements.
The book begins harmlessly enough. The year-old author first writes about his family in Braunau am Inn, and about being rejected when he applied to the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Despite not being accepted, he moved to Vienna in , and according to "Mein Kampf," that was when "the saddest period" of his life began, a time of "misfortune and misery. Hitler also claims that he was part of the squalor. Hitler regularly frequented Vienna coffee houses and spent his time strolling around the city, going to bars and concerts.
The IfZ team confirmed research that he wasn't nearly as poor in his younger years as has sometimes been claimed. Thanks to money he had inherited from his mother, an orphan's pension and a loan from an aunt, he didn't have to work for an entire year.
Only then did he earn an admittedly meager living painting postcards. The story Hitler used to explain his early aversion to social democracy was also apparently invented. He claimed that he had worked as a casual laborer in construction. When his fellow workers went to a tavern, he always remained on the sidelines "I drank my bottle of milk and ate my morsel of bread". He claimed to have heard horrible things on the construction sites.
The fatherland, religion and morality, he wrote, were all "dragged through the mud.
Adolf the construction worker "probably never" existed. With accounts like these, Hitler sought to create the impression that Vienna had been the "school" of his life. Before then, he wrote, he had had nothing against Social Democrats, parliamentarianism or the Jews.
It was only his own experiences that had disabused him of these notions, he claimed. Hitler devoted only a few pages to describing his path to becoming a staunch anti-Semite. A short time later, he arrived at the allegedly objective realization of the devastating impact of Judaism. On putting the probing knife carefully to that kind of abscess, one immediately discovered, like a maggot in a putrescent body, a little Jew who was often blinded by the sudden light.
At irregular intervals, but with growing vehemence, the author rages against Judaism as the source of all evil. But his transformation into a hater of Jews, the future mass-murderer writes, was "the occasion of the greatest inner revolution that I had yet experienced.
In fact, they write, it was not in Vienna but in Munich -- after the war -- that he, affected by defeat and revolution, became a "dogmatic racial anti-Semite.
It is no coincidence that Hitler mentioned neither patrons nor friends of which there were indeed only a few , not even his sister Paula or other family members. The IfZ editors use the term "systematic incompleteness" to describe Hitler. By stylizing himself as an "unknown individual," they write, he offered his followers an "especially large potential to identify with him. In sticky, pubertal passages, he fabulates about prostitution, procreation as the purpose of marriage, and the "female," whose psyche is influenced less by abstract reasoning than by a "vague emotional longing for the strength that completes her being.
There are increasing numbers of race-baiting passages, and Hitler randomly strings together his theories. Chapter 10, for example, called "Why the Second Reich Collapsed," is allegedly about the defeat. In it, he criticizes the supposed superiority of industry in the German Empire, berates the press, writes indignantly about the deterioration of cultural life, deplores the lack of contemporary monuments in cities, accuses the Reichstag of failure, finds fault with the fleet policy of Kaiser Wilhelm II and discusses the pros and cons of the monarchy.
Behind this chaotic panorama lies a concrete, misanthropic set of ideas, albeit one that is scattered across several chapters. He begins with the thesis that "events that take place in the life of nations" are "the natural results of the effort to conserve and multiply the species and the race.
For Hitler, war is not a curse but a legitimate form of the "great and eternal struggle for existence. The team of Munich researchers sees the roots of this anti-civilization program in Hitler's wartime experiences on the Western front, with which he never came to terms. In "Mein Kampf," he claims that humanity would perish if the Jews -- the "vampire" -- prevailed in the impending titanic battle between creation and destruction, good and evil.
In Hitler's world of thought, Jews were determined to weaken other peoples, including Aryans, through racial "cross-breeding. He argued that time was running out and advised his supporters to engage in an opposing effort that was as radical as it was brutal: dictatorship, murder and war.
In addition to analyzing Hitler's treatise, the IfZ historians engaged in a search for his sources. Hitler included neither footnotes nor a bibliography in his book. To the extent that this can be reconstructed today, it seems he haphazardly availed himself of the nationalist literature and the bestsellers of the day. The ideological core of these sources can be found in the 11th chapter of the first volume of "Mein Kampf," titled "Race and People.
The idea of a large-scale land grab in the East had achieved popularity even before World War I. Hitler could read about it, for example, in a work by Heinrich Class, the head of the Pan-German League. Class advocated the colonization of the Slavic regions in the East in emulation of the Teutonic Knights of the Middle Ages.
At the end of his "Handbook of the Jewish Question," anti-Semite Theodor Fritsch writes that the "Jewish question" can only be solved by a "sublimely brilliant mind with unlimited courage, the real dragon killer, the true Siegfried.
A Political Platform? But was there more to "Mein Kampf" than just agitation against Jews and Communists? Was the book even a kind of political platform for the National Socialists?
The historians at IfZ also explored this question and discovered a number of "direct connections to the practical structures of National Socialism. In , the Nuremberg Laws determined that a "Reich citizen can only be a person of German or German-related blood.
That same year, the law was extended to ban marriage with "gypsies, negroes and their bastards. Hitler included Austria is his calculations as well as the German-speaking minorities located largely in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
By , Hitler had subjugated these countries under his control.On 3 February , the Institute of Contemporary History IfZ in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in Uitgeverij Prometheus in Dutch.
New Annotated Mein Kampf Offers Insight into Hitler
Initially, the book will only be delivered to people who order it. He argued that time was running out and advised his supporters to engage in an opposing effort that was as radical as it was brutal: dictatorship, murder and war. I could certainly sympathize with any German who would like to see it kept illegitimate; some speech should, in fact, be off-limits.
This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. When he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration.