M.G.S. NARAYANAN, Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual PDF download for Book Review: M.G.S. Narayanan, Perumals of. Book Review: M.G.S. Narayanan, Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin PDF download for Book Review: M.G.S. Narayanan, Perumals of Kerala. 1 Hermann Gundert, in his edition of Kerajotpatti\ treats the history of Kerala Perumal that resulted into the origin of the kingdoms in Kerala and fixes its date as.
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Perumals of Kerala book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Kerala is the state with the lowest positive population growth rate in India (%) and has to the subordinate status of Venad as a feudatory of the Perumals. CALICUT UNIVERSITY P.O. MALAPPURAM, KERALA, INDIA - . The Perumal was the Lord of Mahodayapura and the overlord of Kerala.
Cabral sailed for Cochin , where he was cordially received and allowed to load his ships. Vasco da Gama reached Calicut the second time with 15 ships and men in February When da Gama's call to expel all Muslims from Calicut was vehemently turned down, he bombarded the city and captured several rice vessels, cutting off the crew's hands, ears and noses.
With rising bonhomie between the Maharaja of Cochin and the Portuguese, there followed several wars in which the Portuguese propped up Cochin and Cannanore against the Zamorin.
Scores of men perished in these wars on all sides starting in and continuing till the early s. In the year , Afonso de Albuquerque was appointed the second Viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in the East.
A new fleet under Marshall Coutinho arrived with specific instructions to destroy the power of Calicut. The Zamorin's palace was captured and destroyed and the city was set on fire.
But the King's forces rallied fast to kill Marshall Coutinho and wounded Albuquerque. Albuquerque nevertheless was clever enough to patch up his quarrel and entered into a treaty with the Zamorin in to protect Portuguese interests in Kerala. Hostilities were renewed when the Portuguese attempted to assassinate the Zamorin sometime between and From the s the Zamorin's naval fleet was administered by the Kunjali Marakkars who inflicted heavy damages to Portuguese property till In , the Portuguese had built a fort in Chaliyam with the consent of the Raja of the Kingdom of Tanur Vettattnad from where they re-established supremacy over Indian waters.
It provided the Portuguese ample opportunities to harass the Zamorin and enter the heart of his kingdom in the event of war. The Chaliyam fort was 'like a pistol held at the Zamorin's throat'.
The Zamorin attacked Chaliyam and recaptured the fort in coinciding with the defeat of the ruler of Vijayanagara , an ally of the Portuguese. The Portuguese were forced to abandon the fort, which was then completely demolished. The fall of Chaliyam fort marked the beginning of the end for the Portuguese in the great game of the East. The Portuguese approached the Zamorin again in for reconciliation.
By they were settled in Calicut and in built a church on land donated by the Zamorin who even laid the foundation stone. The Zamorin's growing friendship was nevertheless a result of his gradual estrangement with the Kunjali Marakkars. By , the Portuguese flag ceased to fly in Kerala as the Dutch arrived at the scene and captured all their strongholds of Quilon, Cranganore, Purakkadm, Cochin and Cannanore. It provided for a mutual alliance between the two to expel the Portuguese from Indian soil.
In return they were given facilities for trade at Calicut, including spacious storehouses. The Dutch could not however stay for long. Their force weakened after constant wars with Marthanda Varma of Travancore until and were forced to surrender to a British force that marched from Calicut to Cochin on 20 Oct as part of the larger Napoleonic Wars between Holland and England in Europe. By , he obtained a pledge of neutrality from the British at Tellicherry in the event of a conflict with the Kerala powers.
In the February , Hyder Ali marched into northern Kerala. Except for a few decisive battles, he faced meagre opposition and entered Calicut. The Zamorin sent the members of his family to Ponnani, blew up his palace and to avoid the humiliation of surrender committed self-immolation.
M. G. S. Narayanan
A revenue officer named Madanna was appointed Civil Governor of Malabar with headquarters at Calicut. Rebellion soon broke out and the Mysorean garrison was besieged by the Nairs. Hyder Ali rushed to crush the rebellion devastating the country side and employed draconian measures to suppress the Nairs including defrocking of their social status Successfully achieving his objectives, he had to return to Mysore soon to deal with the Maratha threat.
Rebellion broke out again. Hyder Ali engaged in diplomacy this time through Madanna and agreed to withdraw his forces for which a war indemnity was to be paid to him. But he made a second attempt in December and re-established his authority in Malabar. I am proud to be a Hindu though I don't worship or perform rituals.
Narayanan, Interview with G. Prashanth, The Hindu M. Later, when the University of Calicut was established in , he served in the Department of History in various positions Lecturer, Reader and Professor before retiring in as Dean of Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, a post he held from He was also known for conducting workshops and summer institutes, modernizing the university syllabus, introducing semester scheme and in starting departmental publications.
It opposes rational, objective and scientific approach not only to historical problems but also to all social science and other problems.
Narayanan from the chairmanship of an autonomous body. In recent years, M. Nearly 40 books were published during his tenure of nearly two and a half years.
Sharma , Founder-chairman of the Council M. Lal was asked to step down for "administrative lapses", and M. I consented on condition no one would interfere with my work.
As per M. No official explanation was given in the government notification, and the media was told of some financial irregularities that the Chairperson allegedly indulged in. It was alleged that the ouster was a part of the Ministry of Human Resource Development's scheme to "saffronise" the agenda in academia. This was the immediate reason, though M. Commentators assumed that he had given the impression of a "no-nonsense academic" as far as history was concerned, which may have become too difficult for the Ministry to handle.
Keralotpattiyum Mattum. Scaria Zacharia.
Hermann Gundert Series. Kottayam: DC Books. Google Scholar Gurukkal, Rajan —4. India and Europe: An Essay in Understanding.
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Perumals of Kerala
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Perumals of Kerala
Google Scholar Matthew, I. Google Scholar Mencher, Joan Google Scholar Menon, P. Shungoony A History of Travancore.
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Google Scholar Schopen, Gregory a. Google Scholar Sen, Priya Nath Google Scholar Sternbach, Ludwik Juridical Studies in Ancient Indian Law.In , Sri K. Arakkal record on their descent goes to Mahabali, who converted by Malik bin Dinar and named as Mammali, does not own any inscriptional evidence.
Logan notes that the view of the Arab muslims in Malabar echoed this line of reasoning. Narayanan, Perumals of Kerala, p. Google Scholar Fuller, C. The foundation of the city of Calicut was therefore laid during the initial years of the 12th century. Historians widely differ on the authenticity of the story, and each part of it could independently be true or fiction. Google Scholar Lekhapaddhati Ibn Kathir though does not mention this in his commentary of the Qur'an, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, one of the most respected commentaries on the Qur'an unto this day.
He topped the University of Madras in his post-graduation in 1st Rank and 1st Class.