SOLAS 2013 PDF

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(b). The Contracting Governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decrees, orders and regulations and to take all other steps which may be. Editors: Emilie Brévière and the SOLAS Scientific Steering Committee .. SOLAS project have recently been published (Liss & Johnson , Brévière et al. SOLAS Consolidated Edition SHIP SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM · ISM Code PDF ( Edition) International Safety Management Code · IMO Resolution.


Solas 2013 Pdf

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SOLAS. Consolidated Edition, Consolidated text of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, , and its Protocol of. The Convention is also one of the oldest of its kind: the first version was adopted in following the sinking of the Titanic with the loss of more than 1, lives. SOLAS. CONSOLIDATED EDITION Supplement. December The following amendments were adopted by resolution MSC(92) on 21 June

They regulate the proper use of IT tools with particular attention to the flow of information. Access and processing of personal data of trainees, jobseekers, contactors and other stakeholders have been strictly regulated and repeatedly addressed in order to preserve confidence. Equality, respect, interest of the public, as well as every individual learner, are considered at all times.

Whereas these are, as already explained, firmly guarded from the data protection standpoint, the issue of privacy-preserving knowledge discovery remains open. Since the results are not personal information in any way, the existing policies do not provide clear guidelines for ethical data mining.

By building an integrated network of services and their providers, the new agency has every opportunity to lead a future focused initiative enhancing capabilities of the Irish workforce. In doing so, it will be in control and will have access to many valuable data sources. Skilful use of data mining techniques can be a driver closing the gap between supply and demand on the vocational training market. By anticipating future educational needs, instead of being merely a coordinator, SOLAS can immensely contribute to the growth of Irish economy.

This, however, can only be achieved in the process of ethical knowledge discovery. The history of civilisation knows many examples of well intended actions leading to unexpected harm, including those that accomplished assigned duties but, nonetheless, resulted in negative consequences Seltzer Along with statutory and internal regulations, the methodology can add positive value and enhance efficiency in a safe and ethical way. Before successful implementation of data mining techniques, however, the following points must be formally addressed in SOLAS.

Data Mining Objective The discovery of relevant patterns must be purposeful and serve the good of public. It should be used as a business tool with intention to learn and better understand the interest and needs Business Intelligence and Data Mining, of SOLAS stakeholders.

This will foster constant development in line with the requirements of everchanging labour market, as well as responsible allocation of financial resources. Resources and Results Protection To assure correctness of conclusions drawn from data, there must be domain knowledge applied at all times.

The potential costs of invalid data mining can be damaging for the reputation of a public agency operating on the national level. It is of utter importance that the people involved at any stage are demonstrating high work morale and are fully aware of the ethical dimensions of data mining in SOLAS.

Therefore, the procedures for sharing data with stakeholders have yet to be developed. Along with industry standards and internal policies, this will lead to formulating best practices and code of conduct to excel in achieving accurate results.

It should be noted that due to the ongoing public debate on excessive and unlawful data collection, the subject is under constant review. Therefore, it is imperative to stay current on legal developments, as well as the attitude of public towards privacy issues. To protect the public interest, any damages caused in the course of action have to be fairly and ethically investigated. Therefore, there is a special requirement for procedures in case of any data mining resulting in detrimental results or privacy violation affecting human Business Intelligence and Data Mining, subjects.

Satellite measurements of concentrations of trace gases and long lived greenhouse gases, when combined appropriately with atmospheric chemistry models, have over the past 30 years provided a continuously improving picture of the distribution of the surface fluxes of these gases at the air-sea interface. Satellite observations are instrumental tools of SOLAS science to address seasonal to multi-decadal time scale variability in the ocean—atmosphere exchange of gases and aerosol-borne chemicals.

In situ observations, both oceanic and atmospheric, presented in Sect. Remotely sensed data provide global-scale data sets at an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution.

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One major challenge ahead is to avoid any discontinuity of operating satellites for the long-term archive and to minimise calibration drift for performing proper climate studies. Earth observations represent a unique observational capability to detect changes in the ocean—atmosphere system and to better understand how planet Earth functions as a complex adaptive system.

The following subsections briefly introduce each type of ocean—atmosphere observation. From the vantage point of space, a radar altimeter is able to measure the shape of the sea surface globally and frequently.

Due to three decades of international effort, satellite altimetry has benefited from a series of missions, leading to an improvement in measurement accuracy by three orders of magnitude, from tens of meters to a few centimeters Fu and Cazenave In order to meet the long wavelength calibration accuracy requirements, topography profile measurements will be available with an accuracy equal to or better than the Jason series of altimeters and radiometers see SWOT Science Requirements Document, Version 1.

The skin temperature SSTskin is defined as the temperature measured by an infrared radiometer typically operating at wavelengths 3. Merging measurements of SST made by different satellite and in situ instruments on drifting or moored buoys requires a proper framework to understand the information content and relationships between these measurements. From Donlon et al. Used with permission The latest reprocessing Pathfinder Version 5. SSTs are at least 0.

Perspectives and Integration in SOLAS Science

This image is based on the average of 10 days of data centered on January 20, It depicts places where the Pacific sea surface height is higher than normal due to warm water , and where the sea surface is lower than normal due to cool water.

Green colour indicates near-normal conditions.

This results in less rain along the coasts of North and South America and along the equator, and more rain in the far Western Pacific. Accurate wind speeds are essential for ensuring reliable computations of air-sea heat and mass fluxes making surface winds critically important for budgeting energy, moisture, gases and particles Fairall et al.

Several reviews of space-based wind measurements and applications have been published i. Liu ; Liu et al. The challenge is to continuously improve the present ocean wind system by means of better bias removal and calibration for low and very high wind speeds, increased temporal sampling using a constellation of instruments, finer spatial resolution and improved methods of fusing observations from multiple platforms. Instruments that are routinely used to measure vector winds speed and direction or two vector components include scatterometers, passive polarimetric sensors and Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR , and those measuring scalar winds speed only include passive microwave radiometers and altimeters.

The temporal sampling is a function of the orbit and the swath width. Fusion of data from multiple scatterometers significantly improves the temporal coverage Liu et al. The assimilation of scatterometer winds in Numerical Weather Prediction NWP models has improved the quality of forecasts of tropical cyclones e.

The sensitivity of satellite microwave synthetic aperture radar, scatterometer, altimeter and microwave radiometer measurements to the sea state varies according to the instrument type and to its operating frequencies. In the future, the combination of multi-frequency, multi-angular and multi-sensor measurements should improve the characterisation of the sea state and spatial resolution, especially in rainy cases and in very strong wind speed cases.

Recent studies show that the retrieval of wind speed in rainy regions, with a degraded precision, is now possible using WindSat radiometric measurements Meissner and Wentz , that ocean satellite altimetry can retrieve wind speeds from the radar backscatter in gale to storm conditions Quilfen et al. Apart from wind speed, the combination of existing and future instruments should also help to retrieve wave parameters.

Altimeters enable the measurement of wave height and mean square slope mss in various wavelength ranges depending on the altimeter frequency. Until now, altimeters e. Clarizia et al. Scatterometer observations together with microwave observations of SST have facilitated the collection of data that couple air-sea processes at scales smaller than the regional, typically at the mesoscale.

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Indeed Chelton et al. The remarkable year QuikSCAT data record has given some insight into the nature of this variability and the dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of this atmosphere—ocean coupling on ocean circulation and atmospheric weather patterns. Shown are binned scatter plots of spatial high-pass filtered fields of the wind stress divergence as a function of the downwind SST gradient top row and the wind stress curl as a function of the crosswind SST gradient bottom row for four geographical regions: the Southern Ocean, the eastern tropical Pacific, the Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream.

Salinity is recognised as an essential climate variable GCOS and satellite SSS is expected to be highly complementary to existing in situ salinity measurements Lagerloef et al. The feasibility of measuring SSS from space was first demonstrated in the frame of the Skylab mission launched in However, at L-band frequencies around 1.

Since then, the development of new technologies Lagerloef et al. SMOS uses a new antenna concept synthetic aperture for spaceborne radiometry applications and was launched in November ; Aquarius uses a large size real aperture antenna and was launched in June Recently, numerous improvements have been made; below we present examples obtained from recently reprocessed data Fig. Reul and J. SSS derived in July with Version v5 of the ESA processors v5 will be used for the whole mission reprocessing until the end of , led to a precision of 0.

The combination of experience from the SMOS and Aquarius missions is expected to improve this precision.

SOLAS Chapter V Reg - ECDIS

New satellite SSS will be a key tool for studying air-sea interactions, e. Liss et al. Bromoform observations in the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean Quack et al. Ocean-emitted volatile organic compounds also appear to be related to phytoplankton activity e.

Gantt et al. In order to study the dynamics of phytoplankton distribution over longer timescales, optical remote sensing of ocean phytoplankton ocean colour provides data on phytoplankton distribution and related parameters with near global coverage on a daily to monthly time resolution.

Arnold et al. Ocean colour has been focused since the s on the detection of chl a, due to its strong absorption properties.

However, chl a concentration changes with species composition and physiological state and cannot be converted directly into carbon biomass, which is the currency used in ocean carbon models. Therefore, recent advances in ocean colour have focused on the quantification of carbon pools, such as particulate organic carbon POC , particulate inorganic carbon PIC and dissolved organic carbon DOC , as well as on the assessment of different phytoplankton functional types PFTs.

Different PFTs have distinct impacts on the marine food web and biogeochemical cycling, e. This, however, can only be achieved in the process of ethical knowledge discovery.

The history of civilisation knows many examples of well intended actions leading to unexpected harm, including those that accomplished assigned duties but, nonetheless, resulted in negative consequences Seltzer Along with statutory and internal regulations, the methodology can add positive value and enhance efficiency in a safe and ethical way.

Before successful implementation of data mining techniques, however, the following points must be formally addressed in SOLAS.

Data Mining Objective The discovery of relevant patterns must be purposeful and serve the good of public. This will foster constant development in line with the requirements of everchanging labour market, as well as responsible allocation of financial resources.

Resources and Results Protection To assure correctness of conclusions drawn from data, there must be domain knowledge applied at all times. The potential costs of invalid data mining can be damaging for the reputation of a public agency operating on the national level. It is of utter importance that the people involved at any stage are demonstrating high work morale and are fully aware of the ethical dimensions of data mining in SOLAS. Therefore, the procedures for sharing data with stakeholders have yet to be developed.

Along with industry standards and internal policies, this will lead to formulating best practices and code of conduct to excel in achieving accurate results. It should be noted that due to the ongoing public debate on excessive and unlawful data collection, the subject is under constant review. Therefore, it is imperative to stay current on legal developments, as well as the attitude of public towards privacy issues.

To protect the public interest, any damages caused in the course of action have to be fairly and ethically investigated. Considering potential risks, the responsible person should always be formally obligated to undoing or migrating the negative consequences of their work in the most efficient way. Conclusions With many challenges that SOLAS in facing, the achievement of business objectives can be greatly supported by employment of knowledge discovery techniques.

Centralised database of learners containing records of their training is potentially an ideal source of information in building an integrated system of further education meeting expectations of stakeholders and the public.

Development of the policy for the ethical use of data mining can provide guidelines for internal procedures that comply with the letter of law and enforce operational efficiency of SOLAS. Related Papers. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: By Stephen Cory Robinson. By Brett Landry. By Rodica Tirtea.

Data Mining with Big Data. By Tumelo Chipfupa. A Systematic Literature Review.

By John T. Avella , Dr. Sandra Nunn , and Therese Kanai. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.Argo has also brought remarkable advances in ocean analysis and forecasting capability. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: This regulation was deleted from the consolidated text of the Convention by the amendments that were adopted in December , but oil tankers of gross tonnage and over that are constructed on or after 1 October and before 1 January must comply with its provisions.

Along with industry standards and internal policies, this will lead to formulating best practices and code of conduct to excel in achieving accurate results. Models are almost the only way to assess what are often complex problems and they rely on input from such studies. In order to provide an easy reference to all SOLAS requirements applicable from 1 July , this edition presents a consolidated text of the SOLAS Convention, its Protocols of and and all amendments in effect from that date.

Claustre et al.

Accurate wind speeds are essential for ensuring reliable computations of air-sea heat and mass fluxes making surface winds critically important for budgeting energy, moisture, gases and particles Fairall et al. By focusing on identifying broad patterns and common rules, this type of data analysis is by itself ethically neutral. Cape Verde researchers aim to build on these first few years of measurements at the CVAO over the next decade by, for example, quantifying the nitrogen oxides budget, elucidating the nature and magnitude of oceanic iodine emissions, evaluating the influence of dust on the ocean heat budget, understanding oceanic nitrogen fixation, quantifying air-sea exchange fluxes of important gases in the west African upwelling area, and analysing long-term trends in trace gases and aerosols in the context of environmental and climate change.

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