SOLID STATE NCERT PDF

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arrangement of the constituent particles, the two types of solids differ in their properties. General. Characteristics of Solid State. Amorphous. Amorphous. wfhm.info (Visit for all ncert solutions in text and videos, CBSE syllabus, note and many more). Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 1 The. Solid State. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Book for Class XII Subject: Chemistry Chapter: Chapter 1 – The Solid State. After studying this.


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NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Chemistry Chapter 1 The Solid State. Answer (i) The number of nearest neighbours of any constituent particle present in the crystal lattice is called its coordination number. Subscribe RSS Feed Pinterest Google Plus AglaSem Home»» schools.8/31/ wfhm.info - No.1 online tutoring company in India provides you Free PDF download of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 - The Solid State. Class XII. Chapter 1 – The Solid State. Chemistry. Page 1 of 34 What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could.

In solid state. Answer i Ferromagnetism: The substances that are strongly attracted by a magnetic field are called ferromagnetic substances. Explain the following with suitable examples: In an unmagnetised piece of a ferromagnetic substance.

Some examples of ferromagnetic substances are iron. These compounds are prepared to stimulate average valence of four as in Ge or Si. The bonds in these compounds are not perfectly covalent.

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 Solid State

The group compounds are prepared by combining group 12 and group 16 elements and the group compounds are prepared by combining group 13 and group15 elements. The ionic character of the bonds depends on the electronegativities of the two elements.

Examples of group compounds include zinc sulphide ZnS. Why are solids rigid? Answer The intermolecular forces of attraction that are present in solids are very strong. Ferrimagnetic substances are weakly attracted by a magnetic field as compared to ferromagnetic substances. The constituent particles of solids cannot move from their positions i. To undergo paramagnetism. GaAs semiconductors have a very fast response time and have revolutionised the designing of semiconductor devices.

This is because the unpaired electrons are attracted by a magnetic field. Examples include Fe3O4 magnetite. The constituent particles of solids have fixed positions i. The substances in which the magnetic moments of the domains are aligned in parallel and anti-parallel directions.

This is the reason solids are rigid. Why do solids have a definite volume? On heating.

Would it show cleavage property? Answer An isotropic solid has the same value of physical properties when measured along different directions.

Solid A is a very hard electrical insulator in solid as well as in molten state and melts at extremely high temperature. This is the reason that glass windows and doors are slightly thicker at the bottom than at the top.

Comment on the nature of this solid. Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature of intermolecular forces operating in them: Potassium sulphate. Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. When an amorphous solid is cut with a sharp edged tool.

Why is glass considered a super cooled liquid? Answer Similar to liquids. Answer Amorphous solids Polyurethane.

What type of solid is it? Distinguish between i Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cells ii Face-centred and end-centred unit cells. Answer The six parameters that characterise a unit cell are as follows.

Ionic solids conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid state.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1

Examples of such solids include diamond C and quartz SiO2. Answer The significance of a lattice point is that each lattice point represents one constituent particle of a solid which may be an atom.

What type of solids are electrical conductors. Answer Metallic solids are electrical conductors. Answer In ionic compounds. Answer i Hexagonal unit cell For a hexagonal unit cell. Name the parameters that characterize a unit cell. Answer i An atom located at the corner of a cubic unit cell is shared by eight adjacent unit cells..

Explain how much portion of an atom located at i corner and ii body-centre of a cubic unit cell is part of its neighbouring unit cell. A compound forms hexagonal close-packed structure. What is the total number of voids in 0. How many of these are tetrahedral voids?

Answer Question 1. End-centred unit cell An end-centred unit cell contains particles at the corners and one at the centre of any two opposite faces.

What is the two dimensional coordination number of a molecule in square close packed layer? Answer In square close-packed layer.

An element with molar mass 2. The packing efficiencies of simple cubic and bodycentred cubic lattices are Answer The ccp lattice is formed by the atoms of the element N.

According to the question. Which of the following lattices has the highest packing efficiency i simple cubic ii body-centred cubic and iii hexagonal close-packed lattice? If its density is 2. Answer This implies that four atoms of the element are present per unit cell. Explain with the help of a suitable example. A solid crystal is said to have vacancy defect when some of the lattice sites are vacant.

A group 14 element is to be converted into n-type semiconductor by doping it with a suitable impurity. What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by: What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it and in what way? Answer When a solid is heated. To which group should this impurity belong? Answer An n-type semiconductor conducts because of the presence of extra electrons.

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These electrons get excited by absorbing energy from the visible light and impart yellow colour to the crystals. Answer When a cation of higher valence is added to an ionic solid as an impurity to it. Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when a cation of higher valence is added as an impurity in it. Ionic solids. These electrons absorb energy from the visible part of radiation and get excited. Answer The colour develops because of the presence of electrons in the anionic sites.

Chapter 1 The Solid State.pdf

Justify your answer. Vacancy defect leads to a decrease in the density of the solid. What type of substances would make better permanent magnets. These regions are called domains and each domain acts as a tiny magnet. CBSE Solutions.

The ordering of the domains persists even after the removal of the magnetic field. Like 34 people like this. Chapter 1 The Solid State. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page.

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Vyanktesh Chandely. Falak Naz. Prakhar Gupta. Duane Blake. Unit Cell The smallest geometrical portion of the crystal lattice which can be used as repetitive unit to build up the whole crystal is called unit cell. Types of Unit Cell i Simple or primitive Unit cell In which the particles are present at the corners only. Number of Particles Per Unit Cell Seven Crystal Systems There are about crystal forms, which have been grouped into 14 types of space lattices, called Bravais Lattices, on the basis of their symmetry and seven different crystal systems on the basis of interfacial angles and axes.

Seven Crystal Systems Packing Fraction It is defined as the ratio of the volume of the unit cell that is occupied by the spheres to the volume of the unit cell.

High pressure increases CN and high temperature decreases the CN. It is more efficient. Coordination number of a tetrahedral void is 4.

Coordination number of octahedral void is 6. The number of tetrahedral voids present in a lattice is twice to the number of close packed particles. The Structure of Ionic Crystals The ionic radius ratios of cation and anion, play a very important role in giving a clue to the nature of the crystal structure of ionic substances.

They are also called intrinsic or thermodynamic defects. In ionic solids, basically these are of two types, Frankel defect and Schottky defect AgBr has both Schottky and Frenkel defects. Frenkel defects are not found in pure alkali metal halides because cations are of large size. In case of ionic compounds, the impurity 1S also ionic in nature. When the impurity has the same charge as the host ion.

Non-Stoichiometric Defect Non-stoichiometric crystals are those which do not obey the law of constant proportions. The numbers of positive and negative ions present in such compounds are different from those expected from their ideal chemical formulae.

However, the crystal as a whole in neutral. Types of n-stoichiometric defects are as follows: i Met excess defect Metal excess defect due to anionic vacancies: Alkyl halides like NaC1 and KCl show this type of defect.

Metal excess defect due to presence of extra cations at interstitial sites, e. On beating, it loses oxygen and turns yellow.

Transition metals exhibit this defect, e.Number of atoms in different unit cells: Primitive unit cell have 1atom Face centered unit cell have 3 atoms Body centered unit cell have 2atoms Coordination number: Coordination number is the number of nearest neighbours of a particle. Diamagnetism is shown by those substances in which all the electrons are paired and there are no unpaired electrons.

This arrangement i. When an appropriate impurity is added to an intrinsic semiconductor, it is called extrinsic semi conductors. The melting points of the given substances are: Solid water K Diethyl ether Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. Hexagonal close packing: X-ray diffraction is also used due to its imaging capabilities and speed of data generation [6]. Therefore, volume of the occupied unit cell Hence, packing efficiency ii Body-centred cubic It can be observed from the above figure that the atom at the centre is in contact with the other two atoms diagonally arranged.

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