for your love, I would be loath to foil him, as I must, for my own honour, if he come in: therefore, out of my love to you, I came hither to acquaint you withal, that. This text was downloaded from, where you can also .. O, a god wish vpon you: you will trie in time in [Page ]As you like it. Download AS YOU LIKE IT free in PDF & EPUB format. Download William Shakespeare.'s AS YOU LIKE IT for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or.

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As You Like It by William Shakespeare. No cover available. Download Plain Text UTF-8, //, kB. More Files. I have no fear of the text because I've wallowed in it for years, and I have some wonderful The Forest of Arden plays an important role in As You Like It and. As You Like It, like Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream, is one of . Touchstone has engaged a vicar, Sir Oliver Mar-text, to wed him and Audrey in.

I commend to you these words, and hope that they inspire. What is the difference?


Many ordinary readers assume that there is a single text for the plays: In some cases, the plays have come down to us in multiple published versions, represented by various Quartos Qq and by the great collection put together by his colleagues in , called the First Folio F. Editors choose which version to use as their base text, and then amend that text with words, lines or speech prefixes from the other versions that, in their judgment, make for a better or more accurate text.

See The Tempest , 1. All Shakespeare editors at the time took the speech away from her and gave it to her father, Prospero.

Index of /doc/AYL_M/scene/

The reader of the Folger Shakespeare knows where the text has been altered because editorial interventions are signaled by square brackets for example, from Othello: At any point in the text, you can hover your cursor over a bracket for more information.

In As You Like It , witty words and romance play out against the disputes of divided pairs of brothers. Banished by her uncle, Rosalind assumes a male identity and leaves with Celia and their fool, Touchstone. In the Forest of Arden, Rosalind, in her male disguise, forms a teasing friendship with Orlando.

Oliver, searching for Orlando, reforms after Orlando saves his life. Duke Frederick restores the dukedom to Duke Senior, who leaves the forest with his followers. Folger Shakespeare Library http: From the Director of the Folger Shakespeare Library. Characters in the Play.

Orlando , youngest son of Sir Rowland de Boys. Second Brother , brother to Orlando and Oliver, named Jaques. As you like it. Printed and bound in the United States of America. Suite Broomall. Bloom's modern critical interpretations Includes bibliographical references and index. The Invention of the Human Harold Bloom Memory theater is usefully invoked as a mode of visual location by Martha Ronk.

Sexual politics. The late Ted Hughes. The poor world is almost six thousand years old. All of us. Touchstone and Jaques are poor wits compared to her. Among Shakespearean representations of women. She alone joins Hamlet and Falstaff as absolute in wit.

That harmony extends even to her presence in As You Like It. Orlando is a pleasant young man. Neither is capable of this wise splendor. Is it honest in deed and word? Is it a true thing? Cressida and Hero are absolved: I would the gods had made thee poetical.


It seems a miracle that so much wit should be fused with such benignity. Dead shepherd. But these are all lies: Poor Jaques is hopeless against her. Iago vainly practising upon Hamlet. Introduction 3 Marlowe. It is not her will but her joy and energy that Rosalind seeks to express.

His most intelligent villains are never brought together on one stage with his most intelligent heroes and heroines. Richard III. We could save Othello and Lear from catastrophe by envisioning Iago and Edmund trying to function if Rosalind or Hamlet were introduced into their plays. There are many ways to interpret: Jaques is an eloquent rhetorician. Rosalind and Hamlet more audaciously manifest the power of mind over the universe of sense than anyone they could ever encounter.

When I think. Rosalind is simply superior in everything whatsoever. I must speak. The Merry Wives of Windsor. As You Like It. Thus the Falstaff comedy comes right in the middle of the period.

Twelfth Night perhaps after Hamlet. Much Ado About Nothing. What I would have to say about Much Ado About Nothing can largely be inferred from the discussion of the other festive plays. As I have suggested in the introductory chapter. Barber form whose development we have been following. The love affairs of Silvius and Phebe. Orlando and Rosalind succeed one another in the easy-going sequence of scenes. Touchstone and Audrey. The Liberty of Arden The thing that asks for explanation about the Forest of Arden is how this version of pastoral can feel so free when the Duke and his company are so high-minded.

To consider the various other sorts of comedy which Shakespeare produced around the inception of the period when his main concern became tragedy would require another. This second movement is like a musical theme with imitative variations. Now go we in content To liberty. But the liberty we enjoy in Arden. Says very wisely. A fool. And looking on itwith lack-lustre eye. And thereby hangs a tale. Thus we may see. Why do we. Such behavior on his part is quite out of character in Lodge he is most courteous.

Early in the play.

The almost tautological.. And then. And so. In Act II. To take it this way is sentimental. Here shall he see No enemy But winter and rough weather. The extraordinary thing about the poised liberty of the second act is that the reduction of life to the natural and seasonal and physical works all the more convincingly as a festive release by including a recognition that the physical can be unpleasant.

Barber inevitability of nine. The good Duke. The two songs make the same gesture of welcoming physical pain in place of moral pain: Come hither. For it only is one aspect of the truth that the roles we play in life are settled by the cycle of growth and. As I observed in the introductory chapter.

To face this part of the truth. If it do come to pass That any man turn ass. Leaving his wealth and ease A stubborn will to please..

Touchstone brings out another kind of latent irony about pastoral joys when he plays the role of a discontented exile from the court: Master Touchstone? Counterstatements That Touchstone and Jaques should at moments turn and mock pastoral contentment is consistent with the way it is presented. And then the justice. Sentimental readings ignore the wit that keeps reducing social roles to caricatures and suggesting that meanings really are only physical relations beyond the control of mind or spirit: Then a soldier.

I like it very well. As it is a spare life. In anything he tries to do he is comically disabled. Will Summers. Touchstone is put outside by his special status as a fool. Touchstone mocks the contradictory nature of the desires ideally resolved by pastoral life. All he achieves is a burlesque of love. As a fool. The fact that he created both Jaques and Touchstone out of whole cloth. Shakespeare scarcely changes the story at all. Although both Jaques and Touchstone are connected with the action well enough at the level of plot.

The humor goes to the heart of the pastoral convention and shows how very clearly Shakespeare understood it.

So he has none of the illusions of those who try to be ideal. He never makes fun of its assumptions. In As You Like It. In respect that it is solitary.

The control of this dimension makes his version solid as well as delicate. But his clown and fool comedy is a response. It was a function of the pervasively formal and ideal cast of medieval culture. If we look for social satire in As You Like It. Shakespeare can be heard crowing with delight at his discovery. But neither Jaques. The satirist presents life as it is and ridicules it because it is not ideal. Shakespeare goes the other way about: We can see this at closer range by examining each affair in turn.

Barber We that are true lovers run into strange capers. Shakespeare lets us feel the charm of the form. The imagery she uses in disputing with Silvius is masterfully squeamish. In each there is a different version of the incongruity between reality and the illusions in poetry.

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The comic variations are centered around the seriously-felt love of Rosalind and Orlando. Her exaggerated downrightness humorously underscores the exaggerations of conventional sentiment.

She has. As the ox hath his bow. All adoration. With Touchstone. Who shut their coward gates on atomies. The fool is detached.

The cicatrice and capable impressure Thy palm some moment keeps. Will you be married. Which I have darted at thee. He goes through his part with an irony founded on the fact and it is a fact that he is only making manifest the folly which others. But to assume that only one girl will do is.

We have a sympathy for his downright point of view. So be sure will Rosalinde. But he does not do so in a fashion to set himself up in opposition to the play.

One of the hall-marks of chivalric and Petrarchan idealism is. If the cat will after kind. We must be married. Romantic participation in love and humorous detachment from its follies. Barber Come.

In laughing at him. They forgot. This attitude of the poets has contributed to that progressively-increasing respect for women so fruitful in modern culture.

For these two hours. She uses the convention where Phebe. I knew what you would prove. In her pretended role of saucy shepherd youth. By contrast. I will leave thee.

My friends told me as much. I cannot lack thee two hours! I must attend the Duke at dinner. Silvius and Phebe are her foils in this: They are no more than what they say. But for the audience. Shakespeare exploits her disguise to permit her to furnish the humorous commentary on her own ardent love affair.

Eliot has observed that we often forget that it was Shakespeare who wrote the greatest prose in the language. I say I will not have you. Highly patterned. But Rosalind humorously corrects him. Yet it avoids a stilted. Such writing. Euphuistic effect because regular patterns are set going only to be broken to underscore humor by asymmetry.

I die. Barber as a whole. Some of it is in As You Like It. Am I not your Rosalind? The focus of attention is not on the outward action of saying something but on the shifting..

The discipline of comedy in controlling the humorous potentialities of a remark enables the dramatist to express the relation of a speaker to his lines. I take some joy to say you are. But the whole design supports each stroke.

The climax comes when Rosalind is able. The speaker can rock back and forth on antitheses. I would not have my right Rosalind of this mind. But in As You Like It the mood is dominant only in the moment when the last resistance of feeling to judgment is being surmounted: Men have died from time to time. December when they wed. This resolution is complete by the close of the wooing scene.

But as Rosalind says them. Love has been made independent of illusions without becoming any the less intense. For a moment we experience as pathos the tension between feeling and judgment which is behind all the laughter.

The wry. Maids are May when they are maids. Men are April when they woo. It is not sorrow that men die from time to time. By this hand. In Touchstone he includes a representative of just those aspects of love which are not romantic. The dramatic form is very different from the lyric: Shakespeare does not have or need the sustained. He uses his broad-stroked. The crucial similarity is in the way the humor functions in the play as a whole to implement a wider awareness. Barber emphasize by humor the limitations of the experience has become a way of asserting its reality.

In a true piece of Wit all things must be Yet all things there agree. But his extremes. In writing of Marvell and the metaphysical poets. The scenes which follow move rapidly and deftly to complete the consummation of the love affairs on the level of plot. In Silvius and Phebe he exhibits the ridiculous and perverse possibilities of that exaggerated romanticism which the metaphysicals so often mocked in their serious love poems.

The dramatist tends to show us one thing at a time. But the lack of realism in presentation does not matter. He includes spokesmen for this sort of release in reduction. The humorous recognition. Talboys Dimoke and his friends had a similar sense of times and places when they let holiday lead them to making merry with the Earl of Lincoln. We have seen this from our special standpoint in the fact that the everyday—holiday antithesis was most fully expressed in art when the keeping of holidays was declining.

An inclusive poise such as Shakespeare exhibits in Rosalind was not. As You Like It seems to me the most perfect expression Shakespeare or anyone else achieved of a poise which was possible because a traditional way of living connected different kinds of experience to each other.

What Yeats called Unity of Being became more and more difficult as the Renaissance progressed. Saturnalian customs existed along with the courtly tradition of romantic love and an ambient disillusion about nature stemming from Christianity. Shakespeare keeps that part of the romantic tradition which makes love an experience of the whole personality. I hope that a reader who is concerned only with As You Like It will nevertheless read the generalized account of festive comedy in Ch.

For the chronology. It is the latter who hold the balance near the center. Ben Jonson. Barber given an unqualified predominance. Every Man in his Humour.

See above. Shakespeare had the art to make this necessity into an opportunity for a fuller expression. His comedies present experience entirely polarized by saturnalia. Selected Essays. William Shakespeare Oxford. Benedict and Beatrice.

NOTES 1. Aristophanes provides a revealing contrast here. It is almost as if we hear him indulging in a sly joke about the whole paternalistic New Comedy model when he has Rosalind. But what talk we of fathers. It is as if Shakespeare reaches his majority in them.

As You Like It is the only comedy in which the two chief protagonists fall in love not as victims of blind Cupid. Orlando is hesitant. With no parental obstacles. Rosalind responds with the immediate From Comic Transformations in Shakespeare. I told him of as good as he. Some of her speechlessness. And what it embodies in its trickster heroine is comic pleasure itself.

It is a metacomedy. What does Shakespeare ridicule? His elder brother keeps him rustically at home. Harold Jenkins notes: A youngest son seeks his proper place in the world.. The grave potential dangers are concentrated at the start. But what is prominently displayed.

It is a play so self-assured as not to care whether we notice or not that it is talking about its own mode of being.. But this is a comic ending or very near ending. As You Like It takes Shakespearean comedy in one direction nearly as far as it could go before returning in Twelfth Night to a more orthodox scheme.

That which is therapeutic to the human condition is elicited here too by considerable anxiety and error. And thou wilt show more bright and seem more virtuous When she is gone.

For this servitude become unendurable. Orlando knows no wise remedy. Her very silence. The usurping duke. A thug is hired to dispatch the rebellious younger brother under cover of a court wrestling-match. Oliver O that your Highness knew my heart in this! Thou art a fool. This is rendered with a splendid acid brevity in Act III. Back home. Beg when that is spent? Existence in Arden 23 his horses better—they are not only fed but taught—allows him nothing but mere growth and.

She is too subtile for thee. The whole of Act II bandies views of the good life about between defendants of court and country respectively. Since this is the case. To transform the Lodge story into comedy. But the audience. What we perceive is a plethora of disjunctive contraries.

Shakespeare erects a burlesque dialectic during which. Amiens sings to whoever doth ambition shun. And let my officers of such a nature Make an extent upon his house and lands. Which is the mocker and which the mocked? Who is fooling and who is fooled? What after all does Touchstone not mock? He dismantles. Existence in Arden 25 promising him no enemy but winter and rough weather. It is as succinct a summary of nature red in tooth and claw as may be found.

The disenchanted Jaques. The meeting between them is reported exultantly by Jaques in Act II. More precisely: Touchstone is a fool. That thou with license of free foot hast caught. Audrey is there to remind us of that. Truly shepherd. That is another simple sin in you.

As sensual as the brutish sting itself. And so what we come to see is that both monistic or polarized solutions—that evil is universal and good an illusion. Most mischievous foul sin. For thou thyself hast been a libertine. It is Jaques. Hast any philosophy in thee.

First by the Duke. At the end of this dispiriting conversation Orlando sends him to seek the fool he was looking for in the brook III. But must we choose? Certainly Act II in particular with its reiterated pastoral polemic.

It is the good Duke meta-senex for a meta-comedy? Yet they continue tirelessly searching. What he would like to do. Nothing is happening.

But it is only themselves they really hear. And Rosalind. Ah Life. Everybody is talking philosophically about life. Existence in Arden 27 And then by the lovers. These constantly collapsing or exploding solutions of the greenwood constitute the comic disposition which the process of the play heightens and mocks. The characters all have answers to the question of the good life.

His speech II. But Jaques. He is the ideologue of resolutions. Lose and neglect the creeping hours of time. He does not say that Arden is a rose garden. The Duke can do much. When the young man rushes on with his drawn sword shouting for food. He only says that he recognizes the penalty of Adam. Nor is the virtue that he makes of dispossession entirely victorious. On the contrary.

They are doing their best. The contraries: Under the shade of melancholy boughs. He is. Which brings us to the lovers. A boar-spear in my hand.

As many other mannish cowards have That do outface it with their semblances. I broke my sword upon a stone. Were it not better. That I did suit me all points like a man? A gallant curtle—axe upon my thigh.. I remember when I was in love. Because that I am more than common tall.

Existence in Arden 29 While the veteran refugees are thinking of many matters. The meeting precipitates the process of self-discovery which the comic device in Act II. She can discover not only. Rosalind discovers nature. For if Orlando discovers culture—sonnets and banquets—in the forest. She is in control. But this is the last time Rosalind is inattentive or absent-minded..

She is master-mistress of the situation. At which time would I. Indeed it is her presence of mind which dominates and characterizes the middle acts. She is invisible. When she says to Celia: Ganymede releases in Rosalind her best powers of improvisation. I have a doublet and hose in my disposition? One inch of delay more is a South-sea of discovery.

It is a superbly audacious idea. Upon which she sagely replies. Existence in Arden 31 what he is like. Her double role is a triumph of characterization through impersonation. I will laugh like a hyen. I will be more jealous of thee than a Barbary cock-pigeon over his hen. Julia and Viola. It is no wonder the gaiety of this twinned character is infectious. What would you say to me now. But it cannot be sounded. She provokes preposterously.

I will weep for nothing. But what is sexual solidarity to her is to her chameleon cousin sexual solipsism and she will have none of it. And if mine eyes can wound.. Now counterfeit to swound. Lie not. Or if thou canst not. And even that is not all.

As You Like It by William Shakespeare

Should be called tyrants. Life itself is validated. That eyes. Now I do frown on thee with all my heart. Free to fantasize. I think she means to tangle my eyes too! Your bugle eyeballs. You foolish shepherd. Phebe is. You are a thousand times a properer man Than she a woman. But it is also not strictly accurate. Like foggy south. Sell when you can. She has merely suggested to Orlando that they meet again. Existence in Arden 33 Rosalind. And thank heaven. For I must tell you friendly in your ear.

What it leaves out is the fun.. And out of you she sees her self more proper Than any of her lineaments can show her. Berry accounts. If she is still Ganymede in the epilogue. Phebe And I for Ganymede. Rosalind And I for no woman. Orlando And I for Rosalind. A remedy for deadlock.

She is thus drawing the audience. The arrival of Oliver. The exhaustion of the comic device is neatly dramatized by the emotional collapse of Rosalind at the sight of the bloodied handkerchief. But if she is dressed as Rosalind. This is the ironic voice which ends the play with the classic plea for applause in the epilogue. Ganymede has in his face that which Phebe would feign call master.

A protuberance is a protuberance. But he is by nature a solitary and continues his travels. All is immaterially interchangeable: But what though? As horns are odious. Wickedness has burst. Jaques is unassimilated. But not all Jacks have their Jills. There is also unaccommodated William at the marriage feast. Jaques gives him two months V. I submit. It is said.. Poor men alone? To Touchstone. Julia and Hippolyta. In this matter she can give as good as she gets.

At the end of As You Like It dukes are restored to their dukedoms. Existence in Arden 35 power. Harold Jenkins. XXI XLIX Shakespeare is not done with the wayward and unruly erotic passions. Sypher continues. He is too Ecclesiastes-wise. Nor will he be. He is not a merry fool. Shakespeare Studies. But his romantic comedy treatment of them does come to an end with his next play Twelfth Night.

Touchstone is a professional jester. They have left Theseus far behind. Shakespeare Quarterly. Maura Slattery Kuhn. Chicago University Press.

Pastoral London: Peter V. Towards a Psychology of Being New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Wylie Sypher. Richard Levin. Abraham H.

Existence in Arden 37 5. University of California Press. Shakespearean Comedy London: The transmission of paternal heritage. The father—son motif. Her talking circles around Orlando seems sufficient proof of her complete triumph.

In the earlier play. The exiles in the forest can indulge in the pleasures of melancholy because the play can amply satisfy the need for true versions of debased human relationship: We relish the platitude of this general rule in order to appreciate the magic of the exceptions. Orlando is educated twice: My point is not that As You Like It is a history play in disguise or that there are no differences between genres.

Concentration on Rosalind to the neglect of other issues distorts the overall design of As You Like It. Male friendship. Orlando is never made to confront a paternal fault. The masques of the Muscovites and of the Nine Worthies are farcical artistic performances that precipitate discord. But the question still remains: And an exclusive focus on Rosalind prevents our asking it. Unlike Henry V. But even Jaques generously acknowledges the validity of love when he gives his blessing to Orlando. Berowne comments explicitly on the absence of marriage and closure.

As You Like It creates a context in which the efficaciousness of art is affirmed rather than denied. Unpleasing to a married ear! I bar confusion. The songs act as a conspicuously inadequate substitute for the consummation that has failed to occur among the main characters. Rosalind has explored the limits of the magic that her male. Rosalind has brought Hymen. I have. That reason wonder may diminish How thus we met.

The character of Rosalind. It recapitulates but does not relieve the humiliation of men as helpless victims of female caprice. In presenting Rosalind undisguised.

Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing. This gratifying happy ending is convincing. Feed yourselves with questioning. The alternative presented by the songs twits the anxiety it ostensibly seeks to mitigate by invoking the larger perspective of the natural cycle: The cuckoo then on every tree Mocks married men. Nor do the companion songs of the cuckoo and the owl dispel the awkward atmosphere. The static quality of this relationship leaves too little room for interplay between the worlds and leads directly to the stalemate of the conclusion.

While useful.

From this perspective. As You Like It dramatically expands the contrast and the possibilities for interaction between the two worlds of court and forest.

Hence it becomes imperative to look at the plays from the perspective of sexual politics. Like Prospero. The sharply differentiated landscapes unfold in sequence. How do we account for the difference between the two endings? How is the resolution of As You Like It achieved? The play sets up a contrast between two worlds: Falling in love is experienced as incapacitation: My better parts Are all thrown down.

There is. Again like the four lords. Her response to Phebe and Silvius is an attack on sonnet convention that implicitly involves a self-education for Rosalind. Like them. And I to live and die her slave. Heaven would that she these gifts should have. In upbraiding the two for their enactment of the stereotype of female scorn and male abasement. The encounter between Rosalind and Jaques at the beginning of act 4.

The idea of the male disguise originates as a strategy for avoiding the normal vulnerability to male force: Before entering the forest of Arden. Observing this dynamic at work in another relation alerts her to the potential Phebe in herself. She is more impressive because more complex and more humane. This traditional image has been resent all along.

It is clear to the audience. Rosalind does have access to both male and female attributes. Her own insistence on the metaphor of exterior male and interior female keeps the categories distinct and separable. Rosalind must reveal herself directly to Orlando. This loss of control signals that Rosalind can no longer deny her inner feminine self. By virtue of the costume. As the disguise begins to break down before its official removal. Rosalind is shown working out in advance the terms of her return.

Though it gives her freedom of action and empowers her to take the initiative with Orlando. The liberation that Rosalind experiences in the forest has built into it the conservative countermovement by which. Yet the costume is problematic. Still protected by her disguise yet allowing herself to come closer to the decisive moment. In order to love. Neither Rosalind nor the play questions the conventional categories of masculine and feminine.

But in giving up the disguise. Her humor has the effect of exorcising and renouncing her potential weapon. The expected negative meaning of horns as the sign of a cuckold is transformed into a positive image of phallic potency that unites men. She accedes to the process by which. Unlike Cordelia. To each of the two men in her life she declares:Iago vainly practising upon Hamlet. It is clear to the audience. Unlike Cordelia.

Bergner is the most charming and complete edition of the femme-enfant, and I hope that it will be a long time before we have finished reading her. For a moment we experience as pathos the tension between feeling and judgment which is behind all the laughter.

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