C: how to program / Paul Deitel, Deitel & Associates, Inc., Harvey Deitel, Appendices E through H are PDF documents posted online at the book's Companion. Appendices E through I are PDF documents posted online at the book's Companion. Website (located Typical C Program Development Environment. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Deitel, Paul J. C: how to program / Paul Deitel, Deitel & Associates, Inc., Harvey Deitel, Deitel & Associates.
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C. C++. C++ Boost Libraries. C++ Game Programming. C# Abundant charts will help you master programming. Appendices E through H Pdf. C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in by Dennis M. Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to. C How To Program, 4/e, by H. M. Deittel & P. J. Deitel. Prentice Hall. 2. The C Programming Language, by Kernighan & Ritchie. Prentice Hall.
How to write a C program? A C program must have at least one function which must be main. To use a variable, we must indicate its type whether it is an integer, float, character, etc. C language has many built-in data types, and we can make our own using structures and unions. Every data type has its size that may depend on the machine; for example, an integer may be of 2 or 4 Bytes. Data is stored in a binary form, i. Keywords such as "switch," "case," "default," "register," etc.
Memory can be allocated at compile time or run-time using malloc and calloc functions. C language has many features such as recursion, preprocessor, conditional compilation, portability, pointers, multi-threading by using external libraries, dynamic memory allocation due to which it is used for making portable software programs and applications.
Networking API's are available using which computer users can communicate and interact with each other, share files, etc. The type number represents both integer numbers and real floating-point numbers.
C Programming Language
The type string represents immutable sequences of bytes. Lua is also encoding-agnostic; it makes no assumptions about the contents of a string. The type number uses two internal representations, or two subtypes, one called integer and the other called float. Therefore, the programmer may choose to mostly ignore the difference between integers and floats or to assume complete control over the representation of each number. The option with 32 bits for both integers and floats is particularly attractive for small machines and embedded systems.
Both are represented by the type function. A userdata value represents a block of raw memory. Userdata has no predefined operations in Lua, except assignment and identity test. This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program. Lua threads are not related to operating-system threads. Lua supports coroutines on all systems, even those that do not support threads natively.
The type table implements associative arrays, that is, arrays that can have as indices not only numbers, but any Lua value except nil and NaN.
Tables can be heterogeneous; that is, they can contain values of all types except nil. Any key with value nil is not considered part of the table. Conversely, any key that is not part of a table has an associated value nil.
Tables are the sole data-structuring mechanism in Lua; they can be used to represent ordinary arrays, lists, symbol tables, sets, records, graphs, trees, etc.
To represent records, Lua uses the field name as an index. The language supports this representation by providing a. Like indices, the values of table fields can be of any type. In particular, because functions are first-class values, table fields can contain functions. The indexing of tables follows the definition of raw equality in the language. The expressions a[i] and a[j] denote the same table element if and only if i and j are raw equal that is, equal without metamethods.
In particular, floats with integral values are equal to their respective integers e.
C How To Program - Dietel, Dietel & Associates.pdf
To avoid ambiguities, any float with integral value used as a key is converted to its respective integer. For instance, if you write a[2. On the other hand, 2 and "2" are different Lua values and therefore denote different table entries. Tables, functions, threads, and full userdata values are objects: variables do not actually contain these values, only references to them. Assignment, parameter passing, and function returns always manipulate references to such values; these operations do not imply any kind of copy.
In particular, you can define new variables and parameters with that name. Lua keeps a distinguished environment called the global environment. Therefore, by default, free names in Lua code refer to entries in the global environment and, therefore, they are also called global variables.
Moreover, all standard libraries are loaded in the global environment and some functions there operate on that environment. You can use load or loadfile to load a chunk with a different environment.
In C, you have to load the chunk and then change the value of its first upvalue. When you use Lua standalone, the lua application is the host program. Whenever an error occurs during the compilation or execution of a Lua chunk, control returns to the host, which can take appropriate measures such as printing an error message. Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the error function. If you need to catch errors in Lua, you can use pcall or xpcall to call a given function in protected mode.
Whenever there is an error, an error object also called an error message is propagated with information about the error.
Lua itself only generates errors whose error object is a string, but programs may generate errors with any value as the error object. It is up to the Lua program or its host to handle such error objects. This function is called with the original error object and returns a new error object. It is called before the error unwinds the stack, so that it can gather more information about the error, for instance by inspecting the stack and creating a stack traceback.
This message handler is still protected by the protected call; so, an error inside the message handler will call the message handler again. If this loop goes on for too long, Lua breaks it and returns an appropriate message.
The message handler is called only for regular runtime errors. It is not called for memory-allocation errors nor for errors while running finalizers. This metatable is an ordinary Lua table that defines the behavior of the original value under certain special operations. You can change several aspects of the behavior of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable. If it finds one, Lua calls this function to perform the addition. The key for each event in a metatable is a string with the event name prefixed by two underscores; the corresponding values are called metamethods.
Unless stated otherwise, metamethods should be function values. You can query the metatable of any value using the getmetatable function.
Lua queries metamethods in metatables using a raw access see rawget. Tables and full userdata have individual metatables although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables.
Values of all other types share one single metatable per type; that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers, one for all strings, etc. A metatable controls how an object behaves in arithmetic operations, bitwise operations, order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, calls, and indexing. For the unary operators negation, length, and bitwise NOT , the metamethod is computed and called with a dummy second operand, equal to the first one. This extra operand is only to simplify Lua's internals by making these operators behave like a binary operation and may be removed in future versions.
For most uses this extra operand is irrelevant. A detailed list of events controlled by metatables is given next. Each operation is identified by its corresponding key. If any operand for an addition is not a number nor a string coercible to a number , Lua will try to call a metamethod. First, Lua will check the first operand even if it is valid. If Lua can find a metamethod, it calls the metamethod with the two operands as arguments, and the result of the call adjusted to one value is the result of the operation.
Otherwise, it raises an error. Behavior similar to the addition operation. Behavior similar to the bitwise AND operation. Behavior similar to the addition operation, except that Lua will try a metamethod if any operand is neither a string nor a number which is always coercible to a string.
If the object is not a string, Lua will try its metamethod.
2) C as a system programming language
If there is a metamethod, Lua calls it with the object as argument, and the result of the call always adjusted to one value is the result of the operation. Otherwise, Lua raises an error. Behavior similar to the addition operation, except that Lua will try a metamethod only when the values being compared are either both tables or both full userdata and they are not primitively equal.
The result of the call is always converted to a boolean.
Behavior similar to the addition operation, except that Lua will try a metamethod only when the values being compared are neither both numbers nor both strings. Unlike other operations, the less-equal operation can use two different events. As with the other comparison operators, the result is always a boolean. This event happens when table is not a table or when key is not present in table.
The metamethod is looked up in table. Despite the name, the metamethod for this event can be either a function or a table. If it is a function, it is called with table and key as arguments, and the result of the call adjusted to one value is the result of the operation.
If it is a table, the final result is the result of indexing this table with key. This indexing is regular, not raw, and therefore can trigger another metamethod. Like the index event, this event happens when table is not a table or when key is not present in table. Like with indexing, the metamethod for this event can be either a function or a table. If it is a function, it is called with table, key, and value as arguments. If it is a table, Lua does an indexing assignment to this table with the same key and value.
This assignment is regular, not raw, and therefore can trigger another metamethod. If necessary, the metamethod itself can call rawset to do the assignment.
This event happens when Lua tries to call a non-function value that is, func is not a function. The metamethod is looked up in func. If present, the metamethod is called with func as its first argument, followed by the arguments of the original call args. All results of the call are the result of the operation. This is the only metamethod that allows multiple results.
It is a good practice to add all needed metamethods to a table before setting it as a metatable of some object. Because metatables are regular tables, they can contain arbitrary fields, not only the event names defined above. Some functions in the standard library e. This means that you do not have to worry about allocating memory for new objects or freeing it when the objects are no longer needed.
Lua manages memory automatically by running a garbage collector to collect all dead objects that is, objects that are no longer accessible from Lua.
All memory used by Lua is subject to automatic management: strings, tables, userdata, functions, threads, internal structures, etc. Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector. It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles: the garbage-collector pause and the garbage-collector step multiplier.
Both use percentage points as units e. The garbage-collector pause controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle. Larger values make the collector less aggressive. Values smaller than mean the collector will not wait to start a new cycle. A value of means that the collector waits for the total memory in use to double before starting a new cycle. The garbage-collector step multiplier controls the relative speed of the collector relative to memory allocation.
Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase the size of each incremental step. You should not use values smaller than , because they make the collector too slow and can result in the collector never finishing a cycle. The default is , which means that the collector runs at "twice" the speed of memory allocation. If you then set the pause to , the collector behaves as in old Lua versions, doing a complete collection every time Lua doubles its memory usage.
You can also use these functions to control the collector directly e. These metamethods are also called finalizers. Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection with external resource management such as closing files, network or database connections, or freeing your own memory.
For an object table or userdata to be finalized when collected, you must mark it for finalization. When a marked object becomes garbage, it is not collected immediately by the garbage collector.ANS: printf "Enter an integer: " ; c Read an integer from the keyboard and store the value entered in integer variable a. Use only the programming techniques you have learned in this chapter. End your prompting message with a colon : fol- lowed by a space and leave the cursor positioned after the space.
Traverse the right subtree with a postorder traversal 3 Process the value in the node 3. Use the constant value 3.
Unlike threads in multithread systems, however, a coroutine only suspends its execution by explicitly calling a yield function. Part 1 of 2 1 to add an item to the queue 2 to remove an item i from f the h queue 3 to end?
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