Fundamentals of Optical. Waveguides. Second Edition. KATSUNARI OKAMOTO. Okamoto Laboratory Ltd Ibaraki, Japan. AMSTERDAM • BOSTON. Fundamentals of optical waveguide theory. How do waves propagate in an inhomogeneous medium? The medium is given by ε(x, y, z) ≡ ε0n2(x, y, z). Optical waveguides are the basic elements for confinement and transmission of light over various distances, ranging from tens or hundreds of µm in integrated.

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The angles corresponds to waveguide modes in wave optics. • For thin .. They are called the fundamental modes of a planar waveguide. • Number of modes. Theoretical fundamentals of optical waveguides. • Planar waveguides; waveguide modes, their properties. Guided and leaky modes. Other types of waveguiding. This module, Optical Waveguides and Fibers, is an introduction to The objective of the module is to present the basic characteristics of optical fibers that are.

Due to the difference between the TM and TE light propagation associated with the diffractive plasmon excitation, our waveguides provide polarization separation. Our results suggest a practical way of fabricating metal-nanostripes-dielectric waveguides that can be used as essential elements in optoelectronic circuits.

Optical communication is the fastest means of information processing. However, conventional optical components are relatively bulky and cannot be packed together as compactly as the ubiquitous electronic components.

Plasmonic nanostructures allow for waveguiding beyond the diffraction limit, making them potential replacements of electronic interconnects in the next generation of CMOS-integrated circuits 1 , 2. Several types of plasmonic waveguiding structures have been proposed and studied, including metal-insulator-metal and insulator-metal-insulator multilayered structures 3 , strips 4 , V-grooves 5 , wedges 6 , and nanoparticles chains 1 , etc.

The possibility of field localization and enhancement suggests that plasmonic waveguides could have a large impact on applications at telecommunication and optical frequencies. A unique property of these hybrid metallic waveguides is that they can simultaneously carry electronic and optical signals and therefore possess the potential to become electronically tuneable photonic devices, e. However, such designs are limited by strong dissipative losses in the constituent plasmonic materials usually noble metals such as gold or silver 2 , 5 , 8 , 9 , Ohmic losses limit the propagation distance of highly-confined surface plasmon polaritons SPPs in planar waveguide structures to at best a few tens of micrometers Although it is possible to create waveguides in which SPPs can propagate for up to a few millimeters 4 , 12 , these long-range SPPs tend to be poorly confined For example, metal films and strips 1 , 2 , 13 can guide either long- or short-range SPPs by changing the film thickness, and decreasing the thickness of the film or strip results in poorer localization of the long-range mode.

New waveguide designs have been investigated to overcome this limitation.

Metal strips and wedges are relatively easy to fabricate but are expected to exhibit relatively large propagation losses and may be sensitive to structural imperfections. Reinhart, R. Logan, T. Lee: Appl.

Fernandez, Y. Okamoto: Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd edn. Calvo and V. Tamir: Microwave modeling of periodic waveguides. IEEE Trans.

Tamir: Guided-wave methods for optical configurations. Kolosovsky, D.

Petrov, A. Tsarey, I.

Yakovkin: An exact method for analyzing light propagation in anisotropic inhomogeneous optical waveguides. Yasumoto, Y. Payne: A new theory of rectangular optical waveguides. Yajima: Coupled-mode analysis of anisotropic dielectric planar branching waveguides.

IEEE J. LT-1, Google Scholar Shakir, A. Turner: Method of poles for multiyer thin film waveguides. Southwell: Ray tracing in gradient-index media.

Journal of the Optical Society of America

Van Roey, J. Vander Donk, P. Lagasse: Beam-propagation method: Analysis and assessment. Nezval: WKB approximation for optical modes in a periodic planar waveguide.

Pichot: Exact numerical solution for the diffused channel waveguide. Ramaswamy, R. Lagu: Numerical field solution for an arbitary asymmetrical graded-index planar waveguide.

Li: Method of successive approximations for calculating the eigenvalues of optical thin-film waveguides. Meunier, J. Piggeon, J. Massot: A numerical technique for the determination of propagation characteristics of inhomogeneous planar optical waveguides.

Belanger, G. Yip: Mode conversion analysis in a single-mode planar taper optical waveguide. Khular, A. Kumar, A.

Sharma, I. Goyal, A. Ghatak: Modes in buried planar optical waveguide with graded-index profiles. Ghatak: Exact modal analysis for buried planar optical waveguides with asymmetric graded refractive index. Hardy, E. Kapon, A. Katzir: Expression for the number of guided TE modes in periodic multilayer waveguides.

Eyges, P. Wintersteiner: Modes in an array of dielectric waveguides.

Gianino: Modes of cladded guides of arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Rodhe: On radiation in the time-dependent coupled power theory for optical waveguides. McCaughan, E.

Bergmann: Index distribution of optical waveguides from their mode profile. Kogelnik: Devices for lightwave communications, in Lasers and Applications, W. Guimaraes, C. Lin, A. Mooradian eds. Springer Ser. Smith, S.

Houde-Walter, G. Forbes: Mode determination for planar waveguide using the four-sheeted dispersion relation. Renner: Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach.

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Optical waveguide concepts

Renner: Efficient finite-element analysis of tilted open anisotropic optical channel waveguides. IEEE Micro.Giorgio, A. Plasmonic Waveguides for Nano Optics For various applications, for example in the context of photonic integrated circuits , it is of great interest to strongly localize light in waveguides to dimensions far below the optical wavelength. Waveguide Dispersion Confinement of light in a waveguide leads to wave vectors which are tilted against the propagation direction.

IEEE Trans. A variety of naturally occurring and artificial materials are also considered such as dielectrics, metals, polar materials, anisotropic all-dielectric and metal-dielectric metamaterials. They can involve aspects such as cost, flexibility and reproducibility of manufacturing, propagation losses, possible side effects on the material e. Applications The applications of waveguides are manifold.

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